IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 52

80.00

Angular Separation Between the North and West Bus
at Vindhyachal Vis-a-Vis 400 Gorakhpur-Muzaffarpur D/C Flow
1,400

MW Flow on
Muzaffarpur-Gorakhpur D/C

Angular Separation

GKP-MZP Total

60.00

1,200
1,000

40.00

800
600
400

0.00

200

-20.00
-40.00

MW

Angle (°)

20.00

0
Angular Separation
Between the North Bus-
West Bus

-200
-400

-60.00
-80.00
00:00

-600

North+Bhutan+Northeast+Part of East Grid Separated
from West+Rest of East Grid (400-kV Farakka-Malda D/C Out)
00:00

00:00

00:00

00:00

00:00

15 September 2006

00:00

00:00

00:00

00:00

-800
00:00

Time

figure 4. The detection of islanding in a synchronous grid (15 September 2006).

revealed that the disturbances happened whenever the angular separation between 400 kV Ramagundam (the generation complex) and 400 kV Neyveli (the load center) generally
exceeded 60˚, as shown in Figure 1.
Likewise, in the northern region, the experience of several
incidents of separation of the eastern (the pit head generation
pocket) and western part (the
load center) of the northMuzaffarpur
Purnea
ern region revealed that the
Gorakhpur 260 km 240 km
Malda
angular separation between
167 km
Jaipur
400 kV Rihand (in southBassi
246 km
40 km
Lucknow
Farakka
eastern part) and 400 kV
48 km
95 km
39 km
Dadri (in the western part)
175 km
Kahalgaon
and the power flow across
Unnao
218 km
172 km
Merta
275 km
the east-west transmission
Greater than
Maithon
Agra
306 km
corridor was required to be
4,000 km
Greater than
2,000 km
130 km
153km
maintained within 40˚ and
Rapp
3,500 MW, respectively, as
Gwalior
Jamshedpur
199 km
shown in Figure 2.
174 km
Kankroli
On 15 September 2006,
Rourkela
233 km
240 km
North
Bhutan and the north215 km
Zerda
eastern part of the eastern
135 km
228 km
276 km
grid was separated from the
331 km
Raigarh
30 km
260 km
40 km 332 km
Bina
western grid and the rest
Raipur
215 km 180 km
Soja
Nagda
of the eastern grid. A plot
Satna
Dehgam
Bhatapara
Kobra
of the angular separation
Vindhyachal
between the north and west
figure 5. The diversion of power after tripping the 400-kV Bina-Gwalior (28 November 2009).
bus at Vindhychal (an angle
✔ modeling errors and/or a failure in communication to the

control center, leading to a nonconverged SE solution.
This fact that angular separation is a significant parameter was evident from some events, which the system operators experienced. In the southern regional power system, an
analysis of several grid disturbances that occurred in 2002

52

ieee power & energy magazine

september/october 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 21
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover4
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