IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 62

200
180

Northeast
306

160
Northwest
272

140
North
631

120
100

Central
387

Tibet
12

East
147

80
60
40

South
373

20
0

figure 1. PMU deployment in China as of 2012.

technologies, over 3,000 smart substations have been put into
operation, covering voltage ranges from 110 to 750 kV. Most of
these smart substations comprise low voltage levels; however,
approximately 100 high-voltage substations are required to be
equipped with the synchronized phasor measurement function.
Phasor measurement and communication functions realized in
this smart substation structure are displayed in Figure 3.
As shown in Figure 3, a PMU takes inputs from a merging
unit and a switchgear control unit via process buses, in accordance with IEC 61850-9-2 sampled value and generic objectoriented substations event protocols. After phasor calculation,
the phasors can be transmitted, at a slow rate, to a monitoring
server via station buses as Manufacturing Message Specification transfer data. At the same time, phasors can be transmitted, at a fast rate of up to 100 frames/s, to a substation phasor

data concentrator, in accordance with IEEE standard C37.118,
and then on to a remote dispatching center.
Chinese standards on PMUs are being updated to conform to recently released IEEE Standards C37.118.1 and
C37.118.1a. Much effort has been devoted to improving measurement accuracy based on the most recently released PMU
standards. Since 2013, CEPRI has conducted testing of PMU
measurement accuracy according to these new standards,
and further work, including tests for supporting IEC 61850,
is also being carried out.

Data and Time Synchronization
Networks in Chinese Power Grids
For purposes of power transfer security and dispatching automation, applications based in the state power

table 1. The number and proportion of PMUs in SGCC generators and substations over 110 kV.

62

Voltage level
(kV)

1,000

±800

750

±660

500
(±400)

330

220

110

Total number

7

6

39

26

723

165

861

200

Proportion (%)

0.35

0.30

1.92

1.28

35.67

8.14

42.48

9.87

ieee power & energy magazine

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - Cover3
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