IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015 - 64

status. Various systems and devices, including a power-grid
dispatch and control system, substation-level monitoring
systems, and synchronized intelligent electronic devices
within substations, run coordinately to realize the synchronization monitoring.
Different synchronization protocols have been adopted
inside substations. The Network Time Protocol is applied for
equipment at the station-control level; at the bay level and
process level, optical fiber pulse per second or Inter-Range
Instrumentation Group B codes are applied to set time. Currently, IEEE Standard 1588 version 2 is applied to communications between substations and control centers.

Recent Developments and New
WAMS Frameworks in China
All of the national, interregional, and provincial dispatching centers have been deployed with WAMS central stations,
and the total number was 39 at the end of 2013. In addition,
some control centers in metropolitan power grids, such as
Guangzhou and Shenzhen, have designed and are in the process of constructing their own WAMS.
Two comprehensive dispatching support platforms have
been developed (D5000 in the SGCC and OS2 in the CSG)
to integrate control-room deployed systems for such functions as energy management, dynamic security assessment,
and dispatcher training. WAMS is one of the core subsystems in these platforms as well. The framework of a typical WAMS is demonstrated in Figure 4. In addition to the
measurement terminals (PMUs) and the communication network, the WAMS central station is composed of several servers, including ones for front communication, Web functions,

historical data, real-time data, and advanced applications.
Among these servers, the real-time database and advanced
application servers are the key components.
Real-time database techniques oriented specifically to
power system equipment have been developed based on
common information model criteria, wide-area distributed
storage, and direct location methods. (These represent a substantial increase in access efficiency relative to those of the
previous system used in China.) The scope of data access is
extended from local to remote areas, which meets the need
for highly efficient real-time data sharing over the entire
network. Several techniques including fixed-time duration,
equal data time interval, and hash-table indexing have been
used to satisfy the requirements of storing and searching
massive data amounts. The real-time database reaches processing capability levels of 5 million events per second.
Many successful advanced applications based on PMU
data or WAMS have been implemented in both the D5000
and the OS2 platforms. Most of these can be categorized
as either model and parameter identification/validation or
as real-time dynamic monitoring and warning. In addition,
wide-area control and protection have been studied and demonstrated based on PMU/WAMS. These major application
categories are described in the sections that follow.

Power System Model and Parameter
Identification and Validation
Load Model and Parameter Identification
Much of the disturbance data recorded by PMUs showed
significant differences between the simulation results and

Advanced Application
Server

Front Communication Server

Historic Data Server
and Disc Array

Real-Time Data Server

Firewall
SPDnet

SPDnet
WEB Server

Real-Time Monitoring and
Analyzing Workstation

Office
Network
Office Terminal

Remote
Data Center

PMU

PMU

figure 4. Model framework of China's WAMS.
64

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2015

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