IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 101

september/october 2017	

thyristor can only be turned on. A thyristor must become reverse biased to be in
an off state, and this is governed by the
network grid and not directly controllable.
The IGBT takes the controllability
of the thyristor and adds in the ability to turn the device off as well as on.
This means its operation is fully independent of the network grid. Greater

advanced control, the ability to reenergize blacked-out networks, and installations that have a smaller footprint are
just a few of the benefits of IGBTs. In
many ways, the IGBT is a superior device to the thyristor with the exception
of power capability. The IGBT is still
a relatively new device for HVdc and requires more research and development for

making life visibly safer

SpanLite

TM

Self-Illuminated
Power Line Marker
Meets FAA Advisory
Circular 70/7460-1L
(Dec. 2015)
Installs directly on
live lines up to 500 kV

Bird
Diverters

LED Obstruction
Lights

Low Line
Flags & Markers

making life visibly safer
800-722-8078 * pr-tech.com

ieee power & energy magazine 	

6709

commissioned in 1972. The thyristor
increased the availability of HVdc stations dramatically. The design was
simpler compared to the mercury-arc
valve. Maintenance was not as frequent,
and less space was required for the same
amount of rated power.
From 1954 until the first thyristorbased HVdc installation in 1972 (and
coincidentally the last mercury-arc valve
installation), the mercury-arc valve technology that Lamm spent 25 years developing had a lifespan of 18 years. The
technology was used in 11 installations.
As is almost always the case with new
electrical breakthroughs, this first-generation technology (mercury-arc valves)
was replaced fairly quickly with superior advancements (thyristors), but the
mercury-arc valves set the stage for the
capabilities of HVdc.
Put simply, a thyristor operates like a
diode with an on switch, called the gate,
that controls when the device conducts.
The thyristor acts as a diode in the sense
that when it is put into a forward bias state
(the anode has a positive potential with
respect to the cathode), it will conduct
and allow the flow of current through the
device once it has received a trigger from
the gate. The trigger is a voltage applied to
the device at the gate. When in a reverse
bias state, the device does not conduct and
blocks the flow of current. The drawback
of the thyristor is that it only has the ability to be turned on but not off. The device
cannot be put into a nonconducting state
with an external signal as the nonconducting state is governed by the electrical
flows of the network grid causing the device to become reversed bias.
The thyristor is still used prominently
today. Many upgrades to the thyristor's capabilities have occurred since
the 1970s when it was first used. It has
earned its reputation as being reliable and
mature in large power capacity installations in the thousands of megawatts.
The latest development in switching devices for HVdc technology is
the IGBT. One key difference between
thyristors and IGBTs is that IGBTs can
be both turned on (conducting current)
and off (blocking current flow) from
an external control signal, whereas the

101


http://www.pr-tech.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050621
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030421
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010221
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com