IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 22

table 1. Main attributes of representative batteries.
Type

Lead-Acid

NiMH

Li-ion

NaS

VRB

Energy density (Wh/kg)

25-50

60-120

75-200

150-240

10-30

Power density (W/kg)

75-300

250-1,000

500-2,000

150-230

80-150

Cycle life (100% depth of discharge)

200-1,000

180-2,000

1,000-10,000

2,500-4,000

>12,000

Capital cost (US$/kWh)

100-300

900-3,500

300-2,500

300-500

150-1,000

Round-trip efficiency (%)

75-85

~65

85-97

75-90

75-90

Self discharge

Low

High

Medium

-

Negligible

Sources: M. Aneke and M. Wang, 2016; X. Luo, J. Wang, M. Dooner, and J. Clarke, 2015.

400
350

(MW)

300

Existing Capacity in 2012
Installed Capacity in 2013-2014

250
200
150
100
50
0

35,000
30,000

(MW)

25,000
20,000

Other
Batteries

NICd

Sodium Metal Hydride
NaS
Advanced Lead-Acid
RFB
Li-ion
Revenue

RFBs

Advanced
Lead-Acid
(a)

The main advantages of using lead-acid batteries are high
energy efficiency, low self-discharge rate, and low up-front
cost. Nonetheless, their further promotion for commercial
use suffers from some obvious technical drawbacks, including low depth of discharge (<20%), low cycle life, low energy
density, and slow charging rate.
Lead-acid batteries are still primarily employed in cases
where cost effectiveness, reliability, and abuse tolerance are
critical but energy density and
lifetime are not as important.
Such applications include automotive starting, lighting, and ignition, uninterrupted power supply
(UPS), and renewable balancing.
According to the Alliance for
Rural Electrification's 2013 report
"Using Batteries to Ensure Clean,
Reliable, and Affordable Universal Electricity Access," Morocco
deployed approximately 50,000
Li-ion
NaS
solar home systems equipped with
lead-acid battery storage to provide rural electrification between
35,000
1995 and 2009. The same data
sources also reveal that, in Ban30,000
gladesh, 3.5 million solar home
25,000
systems have been installed that
20,000
incorporate lead-acid batteries.

15,000

15,000

10,000

10,000

5,000

5,000

0

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025
(b)

(Million US$)

A flooded lead-acid battery is the less expensive of the two
but usually requires at least monthly maintenance to check for
and add distilled water. Furthermore, its operation needs to be
performed in vented locations because it produces flammable
gases. As a lower-maintenance solution, the VRLA battery uses
a valve to minimize water loss by allowing hydrogen and oxygen recombination.

0

figure 1. The (a) estimated installed battery capacity and (b) commissions (MW) in
the -worldwide power sector. (Sources: Navigant Research and the U.S. Department
of Energy's global database.)
22	

ieee power & energy magazine	

NiMH Battery
An NiMH battery consists of
a nickel-oxyhydroxide-based
positive electrode, a metallic
cadmium-based negative electrode, and an alkaline electrolyte
(usually potassium hydroxide).
As an upgrade to its nickel cadmium (NiCd) counterpart, the
NiMH battery has higher power/
september/october 2017



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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
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