IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 30

As a small-format rechargeable cell,
the NiMH battery has been notably applied
for portable consumer use.
reduce battery cost and prolong battery lifetime. It is still
a daunting challenge to rationally design and integrate Li-ion
battery systems for sufficiently stable and efficient
use. While a single Li-ion battery cell may have adequate
cycle life, the health status may deteriorate for a whole
Li-ion battery system due to increasing cell variances during practical use. It is thus essential to establish modular design and flexible grouping techniques to facilitate
efficient battery maintenance and reliability-strengthened
independent control.

NaS Batteries
The NaS battery, as a mature technology, has not experienced significant cost reductions in recent years. The development of the low-temperature molten sodium ion battery
is actively ongoing. The lower operating temperature allows
the use of a polymer external casing rather than expensive

steels, such as cesium, and could be an efficient way to offset
the cost. In contrast, pronounced improvements have been
obtained by other chemistries, such as the Li-ion battery, so
that the market is now gradually shifting away from NaS
battery deployment.
An NaS battery works in a harsh chemical environment
where its insulator can become conductive, thus triggering
self-discharge and potential safety hazards. The growth of
dendritic sodium is also problematic because it not only consumes active materials but may also render internal shortcircuits. Solving the problems of insulator corrosion and
dendritic-sodium growth would greatly further the development of NaS batteries.

Redox Flow Batteries
The RFB has rapidly growing market opportunities as an electrical energy storage device for smart grids due to its ability

Cloud-Based
BMS

Resource Allocation

Modeling, Estimation,
Controls, Diagnosis

Battery Station 1

....

Modeling, Estimation,
Controls, Diagnosis

Battery Station k

....

Modeling, Estimation,
Controls, Diagnosis

Battery Station N

figure 8. A cloud-based BMS.
30	

ieee power & energy magazine	

september/october 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
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