IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 54

batteries accounted for the largest share (57%), followed by
lead batteries (28%) and flow batteries (10%).

Grid-Level Application of EES
and Implementation Cases in
the United States and China
The EES technology discussed in the following subsections
refers specifically to BESSs.

Grid-Level Application of EES
Utility-scale storage systems can provide both utility-controlled and self-directed services, including
✔	 transmission and distribution infrastructure services
[deferrals upgrade, congestion relief, flexible alternating current transmission systems (or FACTS) functionality)
✔✔ electric energy time-shift (arbitrage)
✔✔ peak load management
✔✔ load following and ramping support for renewables
✔✔ reduced curtailment of renewables
✔✔ frequency regulation and area control (primary frequency response, fast frequency response, and synthetic inertia-like response)
✔✔ spinning, nonspinning, and supplemental reserves
✔✔ electrical supply capacity
✔✔ reactive power and voltage support
✔✔ critical load support during outages (islanding) and
black-start capability
✔✔ enhanced grid stability by inverter-coupled EES
(power systems oscillation damping and subsynchronous resonance-oscillation damping)
✔✔ power plant applications that improve efficiencies and
provide ancillary services
✔✔ stacked services (use-case combinations).
According to the DOE's Global Energy Storage Database,
as of March 2017, the United States had approximately 658 MW
20

Power (MW)

15
10

Discharging

Charging
5

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

0

-5

100

0

Time (s)
Active Power from Wind
Active Power to/from Battery
Total Active Power

figure 1. A snapshot of 2-s plant active power data for
Oahu's Kahuku Wind Farm.
54	

ieee power & energy magazine	

of rated power in battery energy storage. BESS projects are
deployed mainly to provide frequency regulation, with a
total of 415-MW rated power, followed by renewables capacity firming (137-MW rated power) and spinning reserves
(127-MW rated power).
Currently, most of China's EES installations (not including pumped hydropower) are demonstration projects. EES
technologies are mainly applied in distributed systems/microgrids, renewable energy integration, transmission/distribution systems, and ancillary services. The capacity installed in
distributed systems/microgrids is the largest, accounting for
40%, followed by that in renewables integration, accounting
for 20%.
In the United States, frequency regulation is one of the
most important ancillary services. In 2011, the Electric Power
Research Institute pointed out that frequency regulation is
the highest-valued application of EES; however, in China, the
definition of ancillary services is not the same as that in the
United States. In addition to frequency regulation, most ancillary services in China currently focus on peak/valley load-following, but there are very few applications of EES in this area.
In October 2016, the National Energy Administration issued
its Notice on Pilots of Ancillary Services Reforms in Northeast China. Peak/valley load-following provided by EES was
proposed. One project in the area of frequency regulation was
the EES project-with 2 MW/0.5 MWh-in the Shijingshan
thermal power plant in Beijing, which was put into operation
in September 2013 and stopped service in March 2015 with
the shutdown of the power plant.

Discussion of Representative Use Cases
in the United States and China
The following projects are investigated as representative use
cases of EES in the United States and China.
Kahuku Wind Farm BESS Project in Oahu, Hawaii

Located in the North Shore of Oahu, the Kahuku Wind
Farm in 2012 consisted of 12 2.5-MW wind turbines and
a 15-MW/10-MWh BESS installation (not operational due
to a fire incident that occurred in August 2012). The main
purpose of the BESS was to help reduce ramps of the wind
power plant output. Ramps should be limited to reduce their
adverse impact on power system reliability and allow the
integration of larger amounts of variable generation. Minimizing ramps reduces the cost of ancillary services provided by conventional generation (in accordance with the
existing 2010-2012 ramp-rate requirements established by
the Hawaiian Electric Companies). A battery system can be
charged during ramp-up events and discharged during rampdown events without wasting energy for wind curtailments
(except for round-trip losses in batteries) and also without
requiring costly reserve services by conventional generation.
An explanation of ramping operation at the Kahuku Wind
Farm wind-battery storage system is illustrated by real measured data shown in Figure 1.
september/october 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
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