IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 61

PJM operates 82,546 mi of transmission lines,
coordinates the dispatch of 1,304 generation resources,
and serves an all-time peak load of 165,492 MW.
the transmission level, an energy storage resource would follow the same rules as any other technology by entering the
interconnection queue to determine if there is any impact
to reliability and specify requirements for interconnection to the system. If successful, the resource executes the
required agreements and can begin to offer and clear in
PJM's markets. It is important to note that, in the entire
PJM region, a transmission-scale energy resource can
net the hourly injection and withdraw of energy and settle
at LMP.
When a generator is behind the meter, it acts as a loadreducing resource. Since 2007, demand-side response (DSR)
re--sources have participated as distribution resources in
the wholesale energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets, with minimum participation thresholds set at 100 kW.
PJM offers a price responsive demand market option for load
to act as RT dispatchable resources, but FERC Order 745 has
afforded DSR a simpler path to economic participation at
wholesale prices. Many energy storage resources choose to
participate in the markets as DSRs due to simpler reporting
and sizing requirements. The energy storage technologies currently operating within PJM include pumped storage hydroelectric plants, batteries, flywheels, electric vehicles (EVs),
and residential/commercial thermal storage such as water heaters and other technologies.

Pumped Storage Hydroelectric
Due to its cost efficiency and operational
flexibility, pumped storage hydroelectric
is considered the primary grid-scale bulk
storage technology throughout the world.
Pumped storage plants can efficiently shift,
store, and redistribute energy generated
from periods of excess supply to periods of
high demand. They play an important role in
peak energy demand shaving or load shifting and convert low-cost off-peak energy
into higher-priced on-peak energy. They
can also effectively relieve transmission
congestion to ensure system reliability.
Due to their flexible ramping capabilities, both up and down, they can provide
frequency regulation and other ancillary services, such as synchroni--zed and
non--synchronized reserves, to help with
power balancing under normal and contingency conditions.
september/october 2017	

For many years, pumped storage was the only commercially proven technology available for grid-scale energy
storage. Pumped storage hydro plants have successfully
operated in the PJM system since 1965, with a current total
generation capability of 5,591 MW. PJM also dispatches the
largest pumped storage hydroelectric facility in the world,
Bath County Pumped Storage, with a total generation plant
capacity of 3,014 MW.

Battery Energy Storage
Battery energy storage is a grid-scale version of batteries
similar to those found in any consumer electronic device.
Thousands of cells are bundled into stacks, which are connected through a dc inverter to connect to the ac power grid.
The most common storage chemistry today is lithium-ion.
PJM's first grid-scale battery energy storage resource was a
1-MW project that offered regulation service to the PJM market in 2009. This device, owned and operated by AES Energy
Storage, was an array of lithium-ion cells housed in a trailer on
the PJM campus. Today, AES operates a 2-MW battery facility at PJM, composed of 86,000 NEC lithium-iron-phosphate
batteries with a total energy capacity of 500 kWh (Figure 1). A
much larger 31.5-MW battery facility, comprising lithium-ion
batteries at Invenergy's Grand Ridge project in Illinois, went
into operation in 2015, colocated with 210 MW of wind and
20 MW of solar (Figure 2).

figure 2. Invenergy's Grand Ridge project. (Image used with permission
from Invenergy.)
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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 3
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
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