IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 62

Storage Queue
Projects
Active
In Sevice
Under Construction
Subs ≥ 345 kV
Trans Lines ≥ 345 kV

figure 3. Battery storage queue projects at PJM. (Image used with permission from PJM.)

As of 2017, the total capacity of battery storage projects
in PJM is approximately 289 MW. Figure 3 shows the battery storage queue projects at PJM. When in service, these
battery facilities, with the capability to change their output
in fewer than 1 s, help PJM quickly balance variations in
generation and load to regulate frequency as an alternative
to adjusting the output of fossil-fuel generators. In response
to PJM requests to balance the grid, the battery unit can supply power into the grid by discharging its batteries or store
excess electricity from the grid to charge its batteries.

Flywheel Energy Storage
Flywheel energy storage involves using a rotating mass
to store electrical energy as mechanical energy. Energy is
drawn from the grid through motors to accelerate the flywheel, and a clutch system can draw energy from the rotating
mass as it decelerates to generate electricity. This modular
system can precisely control the injection and withdraw electricity to provide wholesale grid services.
A 20-MW Beacon flywheel facility went into service
in 2013 in Hazel, Pennsylvania. This facility contains 200
individual flywheels, each spinning up to 16,000 r/min. The
62	

ieee power & energy magazine	

plant provides frequency regulation service as a Regulation
D (RegD) resource.

Electric Vehicles
As long as the battery is charged by the time the owner
arrives for the daily commute, why not let an EV earn some
money while it is sitting idle? That is the concept behind
vehicle-to-grid (V2G), which uses the onboard batteries of
plug-in EVs to provide grid services while the vehicles are
connected to the distribution network. Off-peak electricity
from the grid could charge the vehicles, shifting load to the
nighttime hours, or the vehicles could provide regulation service or other ancillary services to the grid anytime they are
plugged in and available.
The University of Delaware and PJM have been involved
in a V2G demonstration project using battery-only and hybrid
EVs (Figure 4) that are capable of both charging and discharging based on a dispatch signal from PJM. What makes these
vehicles unique and different from other EVs sold today is
their bidirectional on-board chargers that allow them to push
power back into the grid through the charging station. When
aggregated together, the fleet of vehicles looks very similar to
september/october 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
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