IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 63

a large-scale stationary battery. The project
began commercial operations in 2013. In
2014, the university reported gross earnings of US$150 per vehicle per month in the
PJM regulation market (according to The
Wall Street Journal). However, declining
revenues have led to a discontinuation of
the program, which has refocused toward
challenges in residential charging.

Thermal Energy Storage
In addition to energy storage resources
capable of producing electric power for the
grid, PJM also operates a number of thermal energy storage resources. Thermal
energy storage uses a medium that can easily absorb heat (e.g., water or ceramics) to
figure 4. A fleet of all-electric minis providing V2G. (Image used with perstore energy during ideal times (i.e., lowmission from the University of Delaware and PJM.)
cost periods) and then release that energy
to the home or business when needed.
One example of thermal energy storage is electric storage water heaters. In PJM, aggregated fleets of controllable
water heaters, so-called grid-interactive water heaters, are
able to bid the flexibility of their load into PJM markets as
a demand-side resource. An aggregated fleet of water heaters is able to tell PJM that it will charge the collective fleet
at a load value of 1 MW, but the fleet also has the flexibility
to increase or decrease that load based on a PJM dispatch
signal. The effect of increasing or decreasing load is similar
to PJM decreasing or increasing generation, respectively, to
maintain frequency. PJM first demonstrated this concept at
its headquarters in 2010 (Figure 5). As a result of this successful pilot, market participants have now aggregated close
to 45 MW of thermal energy storage for participation in the
PJM regulation market.

Storage Participation in PJM Markets
Due to their unique ability to charge and discharge, storage
resources can participate in PJM markets as supply or load.
They can provide energy for peak shaving or load shifting;
help with congestion management; provide regulation for
frequency control; or provide other ancillary services, such
as synchronized reserve or nonsynchronized reserve. They
can even participate in PJM's capacity market. Table 1 shows
the different types of storage resources by type and amount,
currently participating in PJM's wholesale markets.
Pumped storage hydroelectric resources, considered traditional energy storage, participate in all PJM markets. The
remaining storage devices, about 300 MW total, such as flywheels and batteries, which are distinguished by their fast
response time, limited quantity of energy storage, and small
megawatt output, currently participate in just the ancillary
service market and not in the energy or capacity markets.
FERC Orders 890 and 719 required ISOs/RTOs to modify
their tariffs and market rules so all nongenerating resources,
september/october 2017	

figure 5. The first grid-interactive water heater deployed
in PJM in 2010. (Image used with permission from PJM.)

such as DR and energy storage, can fully participate in
approved wholesale electricity markets.

Energy Market Participation
Pumped storage hydro is the only storage currently participating in PJM's energy markets. With large coal-fired or nuclear
plants, pumped storage plays both a levelizing and peaking role
in PJM's system. In 2006, PJM implemented a pumped storage
hydro optimization in the DA market. Instead of self-scheduling, resource owners submit additional parameters (starting,
ending, minimum and maximum pond levels in megawatthours
and pumping efficiency factor), and PJM optimizes the schedules to meet these parameters and constraints, such as hourly
ieee power & energy magazine 	

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover4
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