IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 70

short-term variability. This results in opportunities for the
development of other energy storage technologies that can
not only capture the value of temporal energy arbitrage but
also provide capacity adequacy, network congestion relief
and investment deferral, and enhanced ancillary services to
their value stack. The timing for the deployment of these
other storage technologies is affected, however, not only by
their intrinsic competitiveness-which, in turn, depends on
the evolution of technology costs, as in the case of batteries-but also by the regulatory and commercial frameworks
that currently result in both barriers and insufficient economic incentives for new investments.
Here, by examining the experiences of Brazil and Chile,
we show that hydropower will play a significant role in providing both traditional services (such as energy and capacity) and an array of ancillary and flexibility services needed
in the new renewable context. We also demonstrate how further storage technologies and, in particular, battery energy
storage plants can complement hydropower generation.
Finally, we discuss the regulatory changes needed to foster a
truly efficient portfolio of storage technologies in support of
renewables integration.

The Case of Chile
Renewable resources in Chile are vast, and so renewable
generation technologies present a significant opportunity
to grow in the near future. In particular, solar and wind

Northern Interconnected System (SING)
Population: 6%
Installed Capacity (GW): 6.3
(5.6 Thermal, 0.2 Wind, 0.5 Solar PV)
400 km/500 kV/1,700 MVA
SING-SIC Interconnector
750 km

resources present a very large potential of about 1,800 GW
and 38 GW, respectively, which can be balanced-in terms
of the operational flexibility needed-by more controllable
renewables such as hydro resources, which can (among other
technologies) be further expanded by approximately 13 GW
(see Figure 1). Interestingly, these potentials are much larger
than the current 22 GW of total installed capacity in generation infrastructure.
Chile also presents very particular geographical conditions, with a transmission network characterized by long
distances between the major load centers and large generating units. Furthermore, the system features a peak demand
of 10 GW (which will increase to approximately 20 GW by
2050), with its major load center located in the middle of
the country (Santiago) and a mixed portfolio of thermal and
hydropower plants-the latter (mainly located in the southern part of the system) accounting for approximately 30%
of the total generation installed capacity. Unlike other countries, the significant number of hydropower plants (including
partially untapped hydropower potential) could offer important advantages in the future, providing several services for
balancing the system in the presence of a high penetration of
variable generation from solar and wind resources.
In terms of location, solar resources are sited mainly in
the north, and wind resources are distributed mainly in the
central south area, creating a challenge in managing intermittency through hydropower plants from the south. Importantly,

Central Interconnected System (SIC)
Population: 92%
Installed Capacity (GW): 17.2
(6.6 Hydro, 8.3 Thermal, 1.0 Wind, 1.3 Solar PV)

2,500 km

Diego de Almagro

Arica

ColbúnSantiago Machicura
Chiloé

Solar and Wind Power Potential (GW)
Technology
SING SIC
Total
PV
CSP
Wind

1,088
532
2.6

175
16.5
34.9

1,263
548.5
37.5

Hydropower Potential (GW)
Size SING SIC Total
0-1
1-9
9-40
40-100
>100

-
-
-
-
-

0.1
1.9
3.8
2.2
4.5

0.1
1.9
3.8
2.2
4.5

0 125 250

500 km
E

N

S
W

Total Potential: 12.5

figure 1. The Chilean power system and its renewable energy resources. PV: photovoltaics; CSP: concentrated solar
power. [Data source: German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ), the Ministerio de Energía, and Centro
de Energía, Universidad de Chile.]
70	

ieee power & energy magazine	

september/october 2017



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
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