IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - 85

A wide range of technologies exist for the fabrication
of the battery cell, including lead-acid, nickel-cadmium,
zinc-air, lithium-ion, and so forth.

the frequency and duration of various services from ESSs in
the context of microgrids.
Depending on the microgrid assets, size, and configuration, the control and dispatch of DERs, including ESSs, can
be in either decentralized local or centralized modes. To
fully exploit all advantages offered by ESSs, a centralized
approach is preferable in industrial, commercial, and large
residential microgrids, where a microgrid central controller
(MGCC) controls and dispatches the assets. Existing communication architectures in microgrids are based mainly on
wireless technologies that comply with IEEE 802.11 a/b,
with the data being gathered and transmitted via Ethernet.
Figure 4 shows a schematic of a microgrid including ESSs;
note that, in smaller microgrids supplied by one main RES,
ESSs could be connected to the dc link of that RES to make

it a dispatchable unit and thus save the cost of an extra dc/
ac inverter.

Grid Forming
One core application of ESSs is enabling an islanded/isolated
microgrid to operate with no fossil-fuel-based generation, providing voltage and frequency for the system; such ESSs are referred
to as grid forming. ESSs can smoothly transition to grid-forming
mode when required, providing synchronization for some DERs,
such as PV units, when the main microgrid source disconnects.
Also, ESSs enable the seamless transition of a grid-connected
microgrid to an islanded microgrid, allowing for the microgrid's
continuous operation during and after grid faults and outages.
This is a key role for ESSs in smart grids because microgrids
equipped with such ESSs can mitigate the impact of grid

Load

Grid

Fuel-Based DER

MGCC

Meter
PCC

Meter

Meter

Feeder 5
Feeder 4
Meter
Feeder 1

Feeder 2

Meter

Feeder 3

Meter

Controller

ESS
Control and Communication Link

Meter

Controller

Controller

PV

Wind
Electrical Feeder

figure 4. A schematic of a centralized controlled microgrid. PCC: point of common coupling.
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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - September/October 2017 - Cover3
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