IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 26

ISO

Total Lost
Generation Lost
Generation
Peak Load (Forced
Due To Fuel
Outages
Supply Issues
and Derates)

PJM

141,312

41,366

9,718

MISO

107,770

32,813

6,666

SPP

36,602

3,185

2,412

NYISO

25,738

4,135

2,235

ISO-NE

21,334

2,700

1,189

figure 7. Electric loads and outages (MW), 6-7 January 2014.

Greater Schedule Coordination with the Gas Sector

Recognizing the need to build stronger cross-sector relationships
and improve information sharing, ISO-NE increased its coordination with gas sector representatives. It now holds annual faceto-face meetings with regional gas control (pipeline) entities to
review each pipeline's maintenance schedules and to understand
the unavailable gas pipeline capacity and the resulting impacts
on gas-fired generation. ISO-NE also provides the pipelines
with its most recent gas-fired generator maintenance schedules,
identifies any gas-fired generation deemed "must run" to support local area needs or transmission security, and seeks to coordinate both pipeline and generator maintenance to minimize any
potential conflicts or service disruptions.
Improved Planning Studies

Since 2000, ISO-NE has commissioned more than 25 studies
of the natural gas sector and related topics, including studies
of regional pipeline capacity and LDC operations, dual-fuel
capability, the environmental impacts of generators (which are
linked to air, water, and fuel permits), and analyses of liquid
fuels and regional storage capabilities. It has also partnered
with other electric sector organizations such as the New York
Independent System Operator (NYISO), PJM Interconnection,
Ontario Independent Electricity System Operator, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Midcontinent Independent System
Operator (MISO) to conduct additional studies, such as multiregional, steady-state and transient hydraulic natural gas studies,
North American Electric Reliability Corporation and Northeast
Power Coordinating Council natural gas assessments, and the
current Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative GasElectric System Interface Study. These efforts have strengthened ISO-NE's understanding of gas supply and transportation
issues and have driven additional operational and business intelligence improvements across the organization.
Winter Reliability Program

Perhaps the most critical factor in preventing disruptions during the 2013-2014 winter was the Winter 2013-2014 Reliability Program (WRP) established by ISO-NE to protect electric
system reliability. The WRP was established to encourage
26

ieee power & energy magazine

oil-fired generators to procure additional fuel oil and for
additional winter-period demand response (DR). It allocated
approximately US$75 million to oil and dual-fuel participants
to store an additional 3 million barrels of in-region oil reserves
to support generation when and if gas could not be delivered
to merchant generators and for DR resources to be available
during stressed system conditions. This stored fuel proved to
be a critical resource during the winter, as ISO-NE used nearly
2.7 million barrels of oil by February 2014. ISO-NE plans to
implement a similar "out-of-market" program again for the
2014-2015 winter season as well as an LNG program.

New England's Experience:
No Longer Just a New England Problem
The ISO-NE experience during the 2013-2014 winter
exposed problematic areas common across the power sector and has illustrated some of the challenges for continued
gas-electric integration. These areas and challenges are discussed below.

Impact of the 2013-2014 Polar
Vortex on Multiple Regions
As noted earlier, the destabilized polar vortex generated powerful cold fronts and low temperatures across large sections of
the United States. While there were no major disruptions to gas
or electric systems during the 2013-2014 winter, an analysis
performed by ICF International shows that there were electric
supply issues during the coldest days in a number of locations.
Further, a substantial portion of the reduction in electric capacity
is directly attributed to fuel supply issues. For example, during a
relatively cold period occurring on 6-7 January 2014, PJM had
almost 10 GW of generation out of service due to inadequate
fuel supplies, and it was not alone (see Figure 7). NYISO lost
2.2 GW, MISO lost 6.7 GW, and the Southwestern Power Pool
(SPP) lost 2.4 GW of generation due to fuel supply issues. By
comparison, ISO-NE lost only 1.2 GW of generation.

Shifting Resources Will Increase Gas Demand
In addition to the dramatic changes in the mix of power system
resources discussed earlier, the electric sector will also see a rash
of power plant retirements in the next few years. Approximately
33 GW of U.S. coal, nuclear, and gas-and-oil capacity (made up
mostly of older dual-fuel units) is expected to retire by 2016 (see
Figure 8). New builds will counterbalance the retired resources;
the majority of the new units will perform gas-fired generation,
however. This is likely to heighten the importance of gas-electric
coordination, suggesting that some of the issues brought into
relief during the 2013-2014 winter are here to stay. Furthermore,
though renewable generation is increasing, some renewables can
be intermittent generators that cannot be relied on at all times to
meet firm customer demands.

More Challenges Ahead?
Given the expected continued growth in gas-fired generation,
sufficient gas supply and transport is of paramount concern to
november/december 2014



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