IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 51

share of NG and LNG in the electric generation energy mix.
In 2012, NG accounted for 83% of total NG/LNG consumption for generation and LNG for 17%. By the end of 2013,
the total number of natural-gas-fired
generating plants in Turkey was 223
(the second-highest type after run-ofTurkey
Solvakia
river power plants). Natural gas supRussia
ply adequacy and pipeline network
Chile
reliability are critical to the security
Poland
of electric power generation and the
Brazil
growth of the nation's economy.
South Korea

Turkish Natural Gas
Pipeline Network

Bulgaria
Romania
South Africa
Czech Republic
Mexico
Hungary

gas supply and distribution are regarded as important factors
for the security and reliability of electric generation in Turkey. The coordination of the natural gas pipe network and the

5.2
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
3.9
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4

The natural gas pipeline network in
2.3
Turkey is essential for the secure and
1.5
reliable supply of electric power. Tur0
1
2
3
4
5
6
key lacks domestic sources of natural
gas, and the country imports nearly all figure 4. The average annual percentage growth in GDP for selected developing
of its gas from Russia, Iran, and Azer- countries, 2002-2012 (source: IMF).
baijan (see Figures 6 and 7). Russia is
the leading source for these imports. BOTAS¸, a state-owned
company, was responsible for importing more than 90% of
2% 0.1%
3% 1%
all natural gas imported to Turkey in 2012 (see Figure 8).
25%
25%
Other companies began importing gas after Turkey's Energy
Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) opened the natural
gas market on 5 July 2012.
Figure 9 shows a recent map of the Turkish natural gas
pipeline network along with significant natural-gas-fired
power plants. Most of the natural-gas-fired power plants in
Turkey are located in the western part of the country, where
the load centers (Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Kocaeli, and
44%
Bursa) are located. Most of the natural-gas-fired units are
Hydro
Natural Gas
Coal
connected to the country's 400-kV transmission grid (see
Others
Oil
Wind
Figure 10). The supply of natural gas to Turkey by its neighOther Renewables
boring countries is backed by mid- and long-term take-orpay bilateral contracts that are in line with common global
figure 5. Electric power production from various resources
practices. That is, the importing country agrees to pay the
in 2013; total generation was approximately 240 GWh
exporting country for a certain amount of natural gas over a
(source: TEI˙AS¸).
specified period of time, regardless of the consumption that
takes place in the importing country. In such contracts, the
importer will suffer financial losses for lack of consumption
1.36%
if its domestic pipeline network is constrained.
Figure 11 shows that the most significant natural gas consumption (almost 50% of the total) in Turkey occurs at power
generating plants. Any pipeline network constraints or contingencies could disrupt supply reliability and cause significant
economic losses in this quickly developing country. Natural
gas consumption in Turkey is increasing at an annual rate of
about 8%, as illustrated in Figure 12. Figures 13 and 14 show
98.64%
that natural gas consumption in Turkey increases significantly
during winter electric peak demand periods. The share of resiLocal Source
Import
dential natural gas consumption was around 20% in 2012 (see
Figure 11), representing gas consumed primarily for heating
purposes during the winter. These figures show that natural figure 6. Natural gas supply in Turkey, 2012 (source: TEI˙AS¸).
november/december 2014

ieee power & energy magazine

51



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover3
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