IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 53

NG Power Plant
400-kV Transmission Grid

figure 10. The Turkish 400-kV transmission network and distribution of natural gas power plants as of 2013 (source: TEI˙AS¸).

national grid in Turkey and synchronized with Iran. For power
export, generators close to the borders with Iraq and Syria are
supplying energy to those countries using isolated systems. A
power exchange with Georgia began in 2014 with back-to-back
HV direct current (HVdc) substations located close to the border via 400-kV ac lines extended between the two countries.
The electric power system in Turkey has summer and winter peak periods, with two distinct supply reliability characteristics for utilizing natural-gas-fired generating plants. N-1
contingency criteria for the 400-kV and 154-kV facilities are
considered at these load periods for assessing transmission
reliability and identifying reinforcements. These periods are
discussed briefly below.

Winter Peak Demand

3.06%

1.37%

6.02%

19.56%
47.82%

22.17%

Residential
Refinery
Electricity
Generation
Industry
Others
Commercial and
Government

figure 11. Natural gas consumption by users in Turkey,
2012 (source: BOTAS¸).

Sm3

(Billion m3)

Figure 16 shows that the peak power demand season in Turkey
50
45
switched from winter to summer in 2008, which was because
40
of the increasing and widespread utilization of air conditioning
35
30
for summer cooling (see Figure 17). The efficiency of natu25
20
ral-gas-fired generating units is highest during winter periods
15
because exhaust temperature limits are relieved. The natural
10
5
gas pressure at electric power plants tends to decrease as a
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
result of a significant increase in residential natural gas loads
during cold weather, however, which can threaten electric figure 12. Annual natural gas consumption in Turkey,
supply adequacy. In recent years, this winter deficiency has 2005-2012, in billions of cubic feet (source: BOTAS¸).
been mitigated by shedding industrial loads during certain time peri6,000,000,000
ods, and these actions have proven
5,000,000,000
indispensable for providing reliable
4,000,000,000
3,000,000,000
electric power delivery. Obviously,
2,000,000,000
though, Turkey's economy suffered
1,000,000,000
from in consequence. Indeed, higher
0
natural gas demand from residential
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
heating at winter peak periods was
not the only issue. Turkey has been figure 13. Monthly natural gas consumption in Turkey, 2012 (source: BOTAS¸).
november/december 2014

ieee power & energy magazine

53



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover4
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