IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 55

LFC
Freq1

ACE

Hz

MW

II

50.5

800

1,400

50.33

533.33 1,166.67

50.17

266.67

933.33

50

0

700

49.83

-266.67

466.67

49.67

-533.33

233.33

49.5

-800

0
08:05:00
29-09-10

Area V SecResUp
Area V SecResDo
P
MvMoment
Frequ
MvMoment

08:10:00

08:15:00

08:20:00

08:25:00

08:30:00

08:35:00

Time

figure 18. The effects of random load deviations due to large steel arc furnaces on ACE in Turkey (source: TEI˙AS¸).

november/december 2014

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

500
0

Other + Waste
Geothermal
Wind

2006

2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000

2005

Wind energy is second only to hydropower among renewable
resources in Turkey. The installed wind energy capacity was
2.5 GW at the end of 2012 (see Figure 19) and has a development target of 20 GW for 2023, which will require that an

3,000

2004

Renewable Energy Generation

additional 1.7 GW of capacity be installed each year during
this period.
The variability of intermittent renewable energy must
be considered when setting the requirements for spinning
reserves. If larger amounts of spinning reserves must be
scheduled because of a higher renewable penetration, then a
larger number of thermal generating units would need to be
synchronized. In such cases, the ramping constraints of thermal generating units would have to be taken into account.
That is, sufficient thermal generators should be committed
and dispatched as spinning reserves within the required time
frames to cope with sudden changes in ambient weather

MW

There are major load deviations in the Turkish power
system, mainly due to the use of steel arc furnaces. The arc
furnaces, which draw hundreds of megawatts during the
melting process, are widely distributed in the country. It is
therefore common to have random and sharp changes in load
that affect the area control error (ACE) in Turkey. As presented in Figure 18, the total ACE on the tie lines between
Greece and Bulgaria sometimes exceeds ±200 MW in a very
short period of time, particularly when these large industrial
loads are coinciding (see the dark blue line in the figure). In
response, conventional generators, which provide fast ramping and spinning reserves through automatic generation control (AGC), balance the ACE (in Figure 18, the light blue
curve signifies "reserve up" and the green curve signifies
"reserve down"). Such load deviations may lead to significant
supply and demand imbalances that are compensated by fast
spinning reserves supplied by natural-gas-fired power plants.
So it is imperative to have an ample supply of natural-gasfired generating units readily available during summer peaks.

figure 19. The installed capacity (MW) of renewable generation
in Turkey (source: General Directorate of Renewable Energy).
ieee power & energy magazine

55



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover1
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