IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 56

(%)

conditions (when the wind stops blowing or the sun stops
shining), which of course affect the renewable energy supply.
Turkey faces large random variations in hourly and seasonal electric loads, and fast-ramping spinning reserves
are crucial for maintaining the adequacy of power supply.
Given the ability of natural-gas-fired generating units to

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Capacity
Dispatch

Gas Fired

Hydraulic

figure 20. A comparison of shares of hydroelectric and
natural-gas-fired power plants in total generation as of 2013
(source: TEI˙AS¸).

Gas-Fired
Power Plants
22%

Hydraulic Power
Plants
78%

provide fast spinning reserves, they will continue to play a
critical role in maintaining reliability. Essentially, a secure
and reliable supply of power generation through the use of
natural-gas-fired power plants is important in order to satisfy
Turkey's 2023 renewable energy target.
Turkey has significant amounts (35% of total generating
capacity in 2013) of hydropower generating units, including
a total of 3 GW for supplying fast regulating reserves. On
the other hand, Figure 20 shows that hydropower production
was significantly less than the energy production of natural-gas-fired power plants. At present, the participation of
hydroelectric generating units with fast controllers in load
frequency control is significantly higher than that of natural-gas-fired units in Turkey (see Figure 21). A larger share
of load frequency control on the part of large hydroelectric
generating units with long penstocks could reduce the potential damping of frequency oscillations. That is, a significant
provision of fast spinning reserves offered by large dam-type
hydro units for frequency adjustment could lead to a deterioration of the ACE in Turkey. This shortcoming would further
necessitate the use of natural-gas-fired power plants in Turkey for AGC applications.
The geographical distribution of potential wind energy
in 2017 is illustrated in Figure 22. The Mediterranean coasts
are the regions with the most potential for the wind energy
supply, which is consistent with the location of large load
centers in Turkey.
Figure 10 shows that most of the natural-gas-fired power
plants are also located at these regions. But almost all of the
large, dam-type hydroelectric power plants are located in the
eastern part of Turkey, as illustrated in Figure 15.

Integrating the Natural Gas
and Electric Power Systems
figure 21. Fast regulating reserves in Turkey in 2013
(source: TEI˙AS¸).

Natural-gas-fired power plants link the natural gas pipeline
network and power transmission systems. The natural gas

figure 22. Potential regions for wind power plants; total expected capacity by 2017 is 10.8 GW (source: TEI˙AS¸).
56

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2014



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - Cover3
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