IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2014 - 66

Yearly Average Consumption Rate (%)

0.35
0.3

Energy Sources

1991-2000

2001-2011

Coal

4.4

6.3

Oil

7.6

0.7

LNG

20.1

8.5

Hydro

-1.3

3.3

0

Nuclear

7.5

3

Renewable

10.3

10.9

Total

6.9

3.9

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05

GDP Per Capita (US$ 2006)
Korea
Germany

Japan
Italy

US
UK

Energy Consumption per Capita by Country
(1980,1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2012e)

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

00
,0

00
,0

45

00
,0

40

00
,0

35

00

30

00

,0
25

,0

00

20

00

,0

,0

10

15

0
00

5,

GDP Per Capita (US$ 2005)

figure 7. Energy consumption per capita for selected
industrialized countries, 1980-2012. 

40,000
103 Ton

efficiency by investing in industrial energy systems, demand
response, R&D, social systems (including residential, communication, and traffic systems), and energy management
systems. As a result, R&D has focused on achieving higher
energy consumption efficiency of both systems and devices. In
the near future, energy efficiency resource standards (EERSs)
will be adopted.

History of Natural Gas in South Korea
General LNG History

0

Energy per Capita (toe)

figure 6. Energy intensity in selected industrialized countries, 1980-2012.

30,000

Town Gas
Gas for Generation

20,000

LNG is a form of natural gas that can be transported over long
distances; it is typically regasified prior to end use. South Korea
started importing LNG in 1986, and LNG has been in the lead
position for national energy consumption since then. Figure 8
shows the relative proportions of LNG consumption dedicated to
town gas (retail consumption) and gas used for generating electricity in South Korea during the period 1986-2011. As mentioned
above, LNG accounted for 18% of total energy consumption in
2012, as compared with 16.3% in 2010. LNG is clearly a stable
and significant portion of the total incremental energy consumed
by South Korea as its economy continues to grow. The annual
average consumption growth rates for the country's six principal
energy sources are shown in Table 1. The yearly consumption
rate of LNG has exceeded 18.7% over the past ten years. Over
the past 15 years, its consumption as the primary energy source,
along with electrical energy, has increased at a yearly average rate
of 3.5% (excluding a period from 2009 through early 2010, when
a foreign monetary crisis occurred, called the "IMF period" in the
country), and LNG consumption is expected to reach 39.8 million metric tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2015.

LNG Imports

10,000
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

-

figure 8. LNG consumption configuration in South Korea,
1987-2011.
66

table 1. Annual average energy consumption growth
rates in South Korea by energy source, 1991-2011.

0
5,
00
0
10
,0
0
15 0
,0
00
20
,0
0
25 0
,0
00
30
,0
00
35
,0
00
40
,0
00
45
,0
00

Energy Intensity (toe/US$1,000)

Energy Intensity by Country
(1980,1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2012e)

ieee power & energy magazine

Table 2 shows LNG imported by South Korea in 2012. The
main sources of LNG are imported from Qatar, Indonesia,
Oman, and Malaysia, which respectively accounted for approximately 28.4%, 20.6%, 11.4%, and 11.3% of total LNG imports
in 2012. Although LNG transportation fees affect the price of
LNG, South Korea has a favorable geographical location that
november/december 2014



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