IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 23

Advanced Wind Generation
Technology Supports Ancillary Services

tray with hand-Šistockphoto.com/deeaf, photo courtesy of nrel

"grid-friendly" power plant. These grid-friendly controls, which regulate both active and reactive
power, have been successfully implemented in all major wind manufacturers' equipment offerings and
have been proven effective in the field. The examples in this article show the performance of one such
plant control system from GE, WindCONTROL.
Integrating wind power plants into grids is complicated by a number of issues that are related
mainly to wind variability and the electrical characteristics of wind generators. A typical wind plant
functions within the grid as a substantially different generation source than conventional power plants The most
significant difference is that wind energy as a fuel source
is inherently uncontrollable and varies over time. In addition, the electrical characteristics of induction, doubly
fed, and full-convertor wind generators exhibit different disturbance responses and output than conventional
synchronous generators. Historically, the real power
produced by wind plants was allowed to fluctuate with
the available wind, and such plants were not required to
participate in system frequency and voltage regulation or
tie-line interchange control.
Such uncontrolled real power output can have an
impact on the grid, including frequency and voltage variations, and increase regulation or ramping requirements
on conventional generation resources. These impacts are
particularly significant for weak system applications, in
control areas where tie-line interchange is constrained,
and in grids with high wind penetration. Moreover, a wind
plant in which power output is not controlled cannot, by
its nature, participate in the regulation of grid frequency,
so when wind generation displaces conventional generation the burden of providing ancillary services, such as
regulation, falls more heavily on the remaining conventional generators.
Historically, wind plants were also allowed to absorb
reactive power from grids or, at best, to maintain a prescribed power factor. This is a substantially different
operating mode than that required of conventional power
plants, which generally regulate their grid interconnection bus voltages. Without coordinated control of wind
plant reactive power interchange with the grid, a typical
wind plant provided no support or regulation of grid voltage. Furthermore, as already mentioned, voltage variations caused by real power variations were not mitigated.
With low wind generation penetration, these equipment characteristics and integration limitations did not
november/december 2015

ieee power & energy magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover3
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