IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 69

table 1. Variable generation in selected European countries (2014).
Country

Denmark

Germany

Spain

Ireland

France

Italy

Total installed generation capacity
(MW) including renewables

13,550

177,750

100,052

8,731

128,943

127,000

Total demand (GWh)

33,471

513,890

243,486

26,648

462,629

309,000

Peak demand (MW)

6,400

77,234

43,450

5,083

81,753

51,600

Share wind + PV of demand (energy)

41%

15.6%

25,5%

17%
(wind)

5%

12.4%

Total wind installed (MW)

4,855

40,456

22,845

2,230

9,120

8,700

Total wind generation (GWh)

13,100

55,970

50,742

5,058

16,925

14,966

Maximum instantaneous wind
penetration for 1 h (%)

140%

43.7%
(12
December
2014)

65,4%
(25
December
2013)

50%

15.7%

26.91%
(28
December
2014)

Wind curtailment (GWh)

26.2
(market effect
due to negative
prices)

480.3
(2013)

Not
available

230

0

121

Curtailment/total wind generation (%)

0.2%
(market effect)

0.93%
(2013)

<1.5%

4.3%

0

0.8%

Total PV installed (MW)

610

38,236

4,428

(0)

5,292

18,800

Total PV generation (GWh)

597

34,930

7,838

(0)

5,856

23,299

Maximum instantaneous
PV penetration for 1 h

15%

33%
(6 June 2014)

14.9%
(4 May
2014)

(0)

8.4%

42.23%
(20 April
2014)

PV curtailment (GWh)

0

65.5
(2013)

Not
available

(0)

0

0

Curtailment/total PV generation (%)

0

0.18%
(2013)

<1.5%

(0)

0

0

Maximum instantaneous wind + PV
penetration for 1 h (%)

140%

56.3%
(11 May
2014)

65.4%
(25
December
2013)

50%

21.5%

46.18%
(06 April
2014)

GWh/MW (wind)

2.7

1.38

2.22

2.26

1.86

1.72

Wind capacity factor
MWh/(MW*8760) [%]

30.8

15.8

25.4

25,9

21.2

19.6

GWh/MW (solar)

0.98

0.91

1.77

(0)

1.11

1.24

Solar capacity factor
MWh/(MW*8760) [%]

11.2

10.4

20.2

(0)

12.6

14.1

Sources: BNetzA, German TSOs, Terna, REE, Energinet.dk, EDF, and Eirgrid.

January 2012. However, as demand slightly decreased in
2013 compared to 2012 (-2.3%) and it was a good year with
respect to wind resource, in 2013 wind generation was the
technology that produced more energy than any other, with
54.3 TWh or 21.2% of the electricity demand being supplied
by wind generation. Furthermore, there have been situations
in which wind energy covers more than 60% of the demand
such as on Christmas morning 2013 when, momentarily,
wind energy supplied 68.5% of the demand.
Such high contributions of variable resources in a weakly
interconnected system have been possible thanks to, among
november/december 2015

others, the capabilities of the Control Centre for Renewable Energies (CECRE), which is able observe in real-time
all facilities larger than 1 MW and to bring under control
in 15 min of all facilities larger than 5 MW. Such control
has proven essential in extreme situations such as the integration of generation during Easter week 2013. On Friday
29 March 2013, the Spanish system suffered an extreme
situation of excess generation due to the low demand during the holidays helped by mild temperatures, while the
exceptionally rainy winter meant that most river dams were
at full capacity and operating close to nominal capacity to
ieee power & energy magazine

69


http://www.Energinet.dk

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 16
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 17
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 21
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 22
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 23
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 24
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 25
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 26
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 27
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 28
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 29
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 31
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 32
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 35
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 36
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 38
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 39
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 40
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 41
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 42
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 43
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 44
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 45
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 51
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 52
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 53
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 54
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 58
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 59
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 63
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 64
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerelectronics_september2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091021
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070821
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050621
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030421
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010221
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070820
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050620
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030420
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010220
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070819
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050619
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030419
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010219
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070818
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050618
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030418
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010218
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070817
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050617
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030417
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010217
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091016
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070816
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050616
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030416
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ieee/powerenergy_010216
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091015
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070815
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050615
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030415
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010215
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_111214
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_091014
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_070814
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_050614
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_030414
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/pes/powerenergy_010214
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com