IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 70

14,000
13,000
12,000
11,000
10,000
9,000
MW

8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0:00

23:00

22:00

21:00

20:00

19:00

18:00

17:00

16:00

15:00

14:00

13:00

12:00

11:00

10:00

9:00

8:00

7:00

6:00

5:00

4:00

3:00

2:00

1:00

0:00

0

Time of Day, 29 March 2013
Real Wind Production

Wind Market Program

Forecasted Wind Production

figure 2. Wind energy in the Spanish market on 29 March 2013. (Source: Red Eléctrica.)

prevent uncontrolled runoffs. That morning, Red Eléctrica,
the Spanish TSO, issued through the CECRE instructions
that all controllable variable generation be ramped down to
zero to assure the balancing of the Spanish system. Figure 2
shows how real wind production was ramped down to zero
between 7:13 and 11:12 a.m.
As these extreme situations are very rare, curtailments
of variable generation are low proportional to yearly production. For example, 2013 was the year with the highest
curtailments of variable generation compared to production,
and less than 1.5% of the available generation resources
were curtailed due to system integration.

Ireland
Over the last decade, wind power has become a significant
percentage of Ireland's overall generation mix. At the end
of 2014, Ireland had installed approximately 2,500 MW
of renewable generation, or enough wind generation to
contribute 21% of overall system demand. Indeed, at particular time intervals, wind has produced enough power to
meet 50% of system demand and has even reached a high
of 40% of total daily energy production. The current level
of installed renewable generation is expected to grow over
the coming years in line with government targets and Ireland's obligations under the EU's climate change package.
By 2020, it is estimated that Ireland's synchronous power
system will have approximately 4,500 MW of wind generation installed, which will meet around 37% of electricity
70

ieee power & energy magazine

demand. This anticipated level of wind (in percentage
terms) will be one of the highest for any synchronous
region in Europe over this time frame.
As more wind power stations connect to the system, it
is expected that the operation of the power system, at least
in the near term, will become more complicated. EirGrid's
program of work, Delivering a Secure and Sustainable Electricity System (DS3), is critical to ensuring the resilience and
flexibility of an island power system in the context of very
high levels of renewables, putting in place innovative and
efficient policies and tools that deliver benefits to the wider
industry. Minimizing the curtailment of renewable generation is an important output from the DS3 program.
The DS3 program is focusing on a number of important
areas that will need to be addressed for Ireland to meet its
renewable electricity target. These include
✔ the rate of change of frequency, i.e., changes to the
grid code in regard to how this is calculated
✔ the introduction of new system services that complement the operation of the power system with high levels of nonsynchronous generation.
✔ system voltage control (reactive)
✔ maintaining system transient stability and improving
dynamic response from wind plants.
As elsewhere in the EU, renewable generation has priority dispatch. However, there are times when it is not
possible to accommodate all priority-dispatch generation
while maintaining safe, secure power system operation.
november/december 2015



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - Cover3
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