IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 71

Security-based limits have to be imposed, due to both local
network and system-wide security issues. It is therefore
necessary to reduce the output of renewable generators
below their maximum available level on occasions when
these security limits are reached; see Table 2. This reduction is referred to in the DS3 report as "dispatch-down" of
renewable generation and is consistent with the principle of
priority dispatch. There are two reasons for the dispatchdown of wind energy: curtailment and constraint. Curtailment refers to the dispatch-down of wind for system-wide
reasons (where the reduction of any or all wind generators
would alleviate the problem), whereas constraint refers to
the dispatch-down of wind generation for more localized
network reasons (where only a subset of wind generators
can contribute to alleviating the problem).

table 2. Indicative results of wind power in Ireland
for 2014 as compared with the three previous years.
Wind Dispatch-Down (%)
Year

Northern
Ireland

Ireland

All Island

2011

1.3%

2.4%

2.2%

2012

0.7%

2.5%

2.1%

2013

1.9%

3.5%

3.2%

2014

2.8%

4.3%

4.0%

Wind Capacity (MW) at Year End
405

1,631

2036

2012

488

1,763

2,252

Italy

2013

544

1,896

2,450

At the end of 2014, the installed capacity of wind and PVs
was about 8.7 GW and 18.7 GW, respectively, with total
energy penetration at 12.4% (in southern Italy, the energy
penetration was 30.2%). Specifically, 14.9 TWh of wind
generation represented 4.8% of national electric demand,
with most wind power plants (more than 95%) connected
to the transmission grid at the 150-kV level and situated
in the south of Italy. PV plants are located more uniformly
throughout the country, with most connected to the distribution grid at medium- and low-voltage levels (more than 95%
of the PV capacity, corresponding to approximately a halfmillion plants).
Figures 3 and 4 show the trend of maximum up and
down ramps of Italy's 2014 wind power production. The
curves highlight the variability; particularly interesting are
the October maximum ramps up (+28% or +1,700 MW in
absolute value) and down (-34% or -2,100 MW in absolute
value). The limited predictability and high variability of
wind power production, combined with great penetration in
the coverage for energy demand, force the TSO to utilize
more reserves to cover this uncertainty of renewable nonprogrammable power plants and so ensure continuous balance
between production and load.

2014

614

2,2101

2,824

France has currently 14.4 GW of variable RES, with 9.1 GW
wind and 5.3 GW PVs. According to the TSO RTE, between
31 and 61 GW are expected by 2030.
In France, √Člectricit√© de France (EDF) and some local
distribution companies have a purchase obligation (PO) to
buy the production from generation sources that are currently
not profitable in the market and the development of which is
incentivized by the government. These include mostly wind
and PVs. This production is paid for by either a feed-in tariff
or a price defined in the tendering process. The balancing
costs caused by PO producers are paid by the buyer and are
compensated in the grid access fees. Moreover, the participation in the French balancing mechanism (run by RTE) is
november/december 2015

Ja
n
Fe uar
br y
ua
M ry
ar
ch
Ap
ri
M l
ay
Ju
ne
Ju
A l
Se ug y
pt us
em t
O ber
c
N tob
ov e
e
D m r
ec be
em r
be
r

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1h

4h

12 h

MW/min

figure 3. Wind power production maximum up ramps in
Italy in 2014. (Source: Terna.)
0
-10
-20
-30
-40

Ja
n
Fe uar
br y
ua
M ry
ar
ch
Ap
ri
M l
ay
Ju
ne
Ju
A l
Se ug y
pt us
em t
O ber
c
N tob
ov e
e
D m r
ec be
em r
be
r

France

MW/min

2011

1h

4h

12 h

figure 4. Wind power production maximum down ramps
in Italy in 2014. (Source: Terna.)

limited to conventional generation and to consumers directly
connected to the transmission grid. VR producers (95% of
connected to distribution) do not participate.
This regulatory framework is changing. In a notice from
December 2014, the French Energy Regulatory Commission
required that the energy bought by EDF under the PO should
be sold in the electricity market and that the balancing costs be
explicitly quantified via the creation of a dedicated PO BRP.
ieee power & energy magazine

71



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