IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2015 - 74

The variability and forecast errors intrinsic to wind and PV
generation will, with an increasing VR share, compound
the need for flexibility and reserves in the European system.
Flexible sources, forecast tools, and intraday coupling, along
with larger balancing areas are important ingredients for
integrating larger VR shares. Larger balancing areas reduce
the need for flexibility, thanks to VR and demand diversity
effects, and also reduce the need for reserves because forecast error rates are lowered. The importance of forecasting
can be seen in the reduction of the reserves requirements and
in operation margins approaching real time.

35
European-Level Requirement
Sum of National Requirements

25
20
15
10
5

0

10

20

30

40 50 60
Hours (%)

70

80

90 100

figure 8. A comparison of the sum of national set requirements with European-level set requirements for upward operation reserves with 40% variable RES. (Source: EDF R&D.)

Sharing of Reserves
In spite of the improvement in forecasts, the development
of a large share of VR may increase intraday reserves and
balancing. The intraday reserve requirements, which are
traditionally related to the size of the system and the rules
used by TSOs to define it, will be increasingly related to the
amount of VR. However, for example, for reserves required
one hour ahead the total increase at the European level can
be reduced by 40% if the definition of the requirements and
the activation of reserves are fully integrated across Europe
(see Figure 8). This full integration would require an intraday
coupling market and a coordination of TSOs to calculate the
reserve requirement and to control the available reserves.
For reserves with shorter activation load-times, the
impact of VR is smaller, but a strong European coordination of TSOs could also reduce the requirement. For this,
it will be necessary to establish unified criteria to define
the requirement as well as an entity that defines, procures,

2,300 MW for a very short period. The frequency stayed
within a band of ±.05 Hz.
The security of the supply was never endangered during the event. Close communication and cooperation
were maintained among other European TSOs and German TSOs, as well as among German TSOs and distribution system operators, generators, balancing groups,
control power providers, and active PV market traders.
Additional technical personnel and special training were
provided for the transmission control centers, trading
departments, and back offices; regional security initiatives created detailed forecasting reports, and a maximum
of 600 MW of immediately and quickly interruptible load
were activated.

250

Power System

Gas System

PJ/Year

200

District Heating
(Ex Plant)

Individual Heating Individual Process
(Netto)
Heat (Netto)

Transport Work
(Netto)

Now

30

Now

Upward
Operation Reserve 1 h (GW)

Flexibility and Reserves

150
100
50

Wind, Solar, etc.

Biomass/Waste

Natural Gas

RE-Gas/Biofuels

DH/Surplus Heat

Electricity

2050

2035

2025

2050

2035

2025

Now

2050

2035

2025

2050

2035

2025

Now

2050

2035

2025

Now

2050

2035

2025

Now

0

Oil/Coal

figure 9. A possible Danish transition process: production and consumption.
74

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2015



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