IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 28

500-kV Phase-to-Phase Fault
Longitudinal Current Differential
Protection Act: Three-Phase Line Trip
System Voltage Sags
Wind Turbines Without LVRT Capability
Trip from the Grid
Fault Cleared After 60 ms
Grid Voltage Rises Due to Reduced
Power Injection from Wind Farms
More Wind Turbines Trip, Resulting in
Further Rise in Grid Voltage

Manual Reduction in
SVC and Capacitors
at Each Wind Farm
Gradually Brings
Voltage Back Down

Output of Some Wind
Generators Reduced
Further Due to Voltage
Fluctuations

occurred on one 500-kV line, causing 464 wind turbines to
disconnect from the grid due to the excessively low voltage.
This led to a power loss of nearly 650 MW. The fault was
cleared after 60 ms, and system voltage recovered subsequently. The loss of active power generation caused a huge
surplus of reactive power, thus causing the system voltage
to rise rapidly. By 200 ms after the fault, the voltage at the
point of common coupling (PCC) of some of the wind farms
had increased to above 120% of rated value. The voltage
at most other plants reached 110% of nominal value. The
overvoltage lasted for more than 5 s, resulting in another
326 wind turbines tripping off due to overvoltage protection.
That added 366 MW to the total power loss. Figure 3 shows
how the incident evolved.
Figure 4 shows recorded positive sequence voltages during the incident. Blue vertical lines mark the beginning and
end of the fault, and the red lines show the transduced voltage at mid-fault. The data indicate that the positive sequence
voltage of the 220-kV bus of the 500-kV Guyuan Station
dropped to 43% of the rated by fault clearing. The voltage
of the 220-kV Bailongshan Station and its four wind farms
declined instantly to below 20%. The voltage of the 220-kV
Yiyuan Station and its six wind farms dropped below 20%,
and the voltage of the Huajin and Hanjiazhuang wind power
plants decreased to around 1.3% of rating.

Simulation and Analysis of the Guyuan Fault

Voltage/kV

Voltage/kV

Voltage/kV

figure 3. The cascading disconnection of wind power in
Guyuan.

Simulations were conducted on the event that took place in
Guyuan on 16 November. Simulation voltages of the major

250
200
150
100
22:22:44.400

22:22:44.600

22:22:44.800
Guyuan 220-kV Bus

22:22:44.400

22:22:44.600

22:22:44.800
Chabei 220-kV Bus

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
22:22:44.500

Yiyuan 220-kV Bus

figure 4. A recording of voltages during the Guyuan grid fault.
28

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover3
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