IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 38

(Plc) monitoring these sensors
would issue a "hard" shutdown if
either sensor detected water.
Prior to the membrane installation, the upper reservoir had been
operated to a maximum level of
1,596 ft as measured by a guage
on the parapet wall. this guage,
however, had settled 1 ft since its
installation; therefore, the maximum level allowed in the reservoir was really 1,595 ft, or 2 ft
below the lowest point on the top
of the parapet wall. when operations began again on 15 november 2004, the maximum elevation
of water permitted was 1,596 ft,
or 1 ft below the lowest point on
the parapet. the Plc logic was
programmed to control the units
based on the water level indicated
figure 5. The upper reservoir of the Taum Sauk plant after 14 December 2005.
by the druck sensors. the Plc
(Courtesy of FERC.)
issued commands to shut off one
pumping unit at 1,592 ft and the
second
pumping
unit
at
1,596
ft, with a further instruction to
another set of sensors was also replaced at this time. warrick conductivity sensors were installed on the parapet wall to shut "all pumps" at 1,596.5 ft. these settings would seem to
provide high-water-level warnings. the sensors were desig- conflict with the rationale for the placement of the warrick
nated "hi" and "hi-hi" and would activate when they became sensors at 1596 and 1596.2 ft.
the sensor placement and control logic were altered sevwet. the warrick sensors were originally placed at elevations
1,596 ft and 1,596.2 ft. the programmable logic controller eral times over the following year. Following an incident on

200
150
100

1,600
Pump 1
Pump 2
Upper Res Level

1,590
1,580

50
1,570

0
-50

1,560

-100
-150

Reservoir Elevation (ft)

(-Pumping) Pump MWs (+Generating)

250

1,550

-200
1,540

ec
.

13

D

ec
.
D

13

13

D

ec
.

20
05

02
:5

20
8
05
p.
m
03
.
:5
20
13
8
0
p
5
D
.m
ec
04
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p.
5
D
m
ec
05
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p
5
D
.m
ec
06
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p.
5
D
m
ec
07
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p.
5
D
m
ec
08
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p
5
D
.m
ec
09
.
.2
:5
13
8
00
p.
5
D
m
ec
10
.
.2
:5
8
14
00
p
5
.m
D
11
ec
.
:5
.2
8
14
00
p
.m
D
5
ec
00
.
.2
:
5
14
8
00
a.
5
D
m
ec
01
.
.2
:5
14
8
00
a.
5
D
m
ec
02
.
.
:
5
2
14
8
00
a
D
5
.m
ec
03
.
.2
:5
14
00
8
a.
5
D
m
04
ec
.
:5
.2
8
00
a
.m
5
05
.
:5
8
a.
m
.

-250

figure 6. The upper reservoir water level (in blue) and the units in megawatts (in green and magenta) at Taum Sauk,
13-14 December 2005.
38

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2016



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