IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 44

The trip of these three 500-kV
circuits, together with the main1
tenance of the São João do Piauí
765 kV
C1
to Milagres 500-kV line, created
a severely degraded system con345 kV
C2
C2
˜
dition, which ultimately led to
3
2
a power oscillation between the
500 kV
northeast region and the other
C3
C3
regions of the BIPS. These interSouth
area power oscillations were de500 kV Region
tected by the out-of-step protection, forcing its intended mitigation
figure 4. The sequence of events occurring on the Itaipu 765-kV transmission lines.
actions. The correct actuation of
out-of-step protection disconnected
several
230and
500-kV
transmission lines, islanding the
the protection also opened all breakers connected to Bus 1
northeast region from the rest of the system.
[the upper bus in Figure 5(a)].
Fortunately, the islanding of the northeast region avoided
At 00:21 a.m., upon operator action to close circuit
breaker 15D2 at the Luiz Gonzaga substation to restore the the propagation of the disturbance to the north and southopen circuit 1 of the Luiz Gonzaga to Sobradinho 500-kV eastern regions, thus preventing a large-scale regional event
transmission line, there was another malfunction of the from becoming a nationwide blackout. Unfortunately, the
breaker failure protection, resulting in the disconnection northeast island area was left with a large generation defiof the entire substation. The opening of the 15D2 breaker ciency because the northeast region had been importing
led to the opening of all breakers connected to Bus 2, 3,237 MW from neighboring regions of the BIPS. The gencausing the disconnection of the second circuit of the eration deficit caused a severe underfrequency condition.
500  kV from Luiz Gonzaga to Sobradinho line and also The post-islanding frequency reached a minimum value of
the Luiz Gonzaga to Milagres transmission 500-kV line. 56.4 Hz, which led to the correct actuation of five stages of
The generating units of the Luiz Gonzaga hydro power underfrequency load shedding, interrupting 3,297 MW of
plant were separated from each other but still connected load. In other words, 41.2% of the total load of the northeast
to the system, as only the middle breakers of the breaker region was shed. On top of this already critical post-islandand one-half substation remained closed, connecting the ing situation, the operators also verified severe undervoltage
generating units to the grid through long 500-kV lines, as conditions that triggered further load shedding, resulting in a
loss of another 1,300 MW of load. The frequency recovered
shown in Figure 5(b).
Itabera

Tijuco Preto

Southeast/Midwest
Region

Foz do Iguaçu
Ivaipora
Itaipu 60 Hz
765 kV C1
500 kV

table 4. The load lost and restoration times for the 10 November 2009 event.

44

State/Region

Interrupted Load (MW)

% of Load Interrupted

Average Restoration
Time (min)

São Paulo

14,378

87

256

Rio de Janeiro

6,231

100.0

232

Espírito Santo

1,342

100.0

129

Minas Gerais

517

10.0

61

Total southeast

22,468

65.0

237

South states combined (Paraná, Santa
Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul)

10

>0.01

9

Total south

10

>0.01

9

Goias and Distrito Federal

89

7

10

Mato Grosso

190

29

38

Mato Grosso
do Sul

588

100.0

94

Total midwest

867

34.5

52

Total north and northeast

1,012

7.5

24

Brazil

24,436

40

222

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2016



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