IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 45

successfully after the load shedding and remained operating at
60 Hz, leaving the northeast island
system at a new stable operation
point. The total loss of load in this
first event was 4,597 MW.
However, just when the system
operators were starting to think
that things were under control, the
second event started. After 40 s of
stable operation, generating units
from two large power plants in
the region began to disconnect for
several reasons, including loss of
the plant auxiliary services supply and the incorrect actuation of
the overcurrent protection of plant
step-up transformers.
The disconnection of these generating units in the northeast region
led to the loss of 2,773 MW of generation. The islanded northeast region
continued operating with degraded
voltage and frequency levels for a
few minutes until, at 00:29 a.m., the
northeast system collapsed entirely
in a complete blackout.

Milagres
Angelim Paulo Afonso Olindina
Substation Substation IV Substation Substation

Sobradinho
Substation

Circuit
Breaker
15D1
Bus 1

Ckt1

Ckt2

Bus 2

São Luiz Gonzaga
Generating Units
(a)

00:18 a.m.-Malfunction of the
Breaker Failure Protection

Milagres
Angelim Paulo Afonso Olindina
Substation Substation IV Substation Substation

Bus 1

Sobradinho
Substation

Ckt1

Ckt2

Main Consequences
of This Blackout
The number of customers affected
was around 40 million people,
with approximately 8,000 MW of
total load loss in this disturbance.
The average load restoration time
was 194 min, as shown in Table 5.

Lessons Learned
for the Brazilian
System Operator and
Transmissions Service
Providers

Bus 2

Circuit Breaker 15D2
1 Unit
2 Units
2 Units
São Luiz Gonzaga Generating Units
Now Isolated from Each Other
(b)
Legend:

Closed

figure 5. (a) The first breaker failure at the São Luiz Gonzaga substation and (b) the
second breaker failure at the same substation.

There were very thorough investigations into the causes of these
two events. The mitigating actions taken by the ISO and the
transmission service providers (TSP) during the course of the
events were also analyzed in detail. The goal was to improve
processes and procedures that minimize the likelihood and
extent of large-scale blackouts and develop an effective and
quick restoration of the system. To answer all the questions
identified, several studies were triggered by the investigation
processes, including
✔ the assessment of new restoration corridors
✔ the possibility of using thermal plants in the restoration process
november/december 2016

Open

✔ clarifying and remedying the communication (voice

and data) difficulties that occurred between the Brazilian ISO and TSPs and problems of data loss in the
system supervision and control system
✔ investigating the causes for the difficulty encountered
during synchronization of a minimum number of generating units in many power plants to start their restoration process.
This multicompany study effort was coordinated by the ISO
and resulted in revised procedures and guidelines to improve
and speed up the Brazilian power system restoration process.
ieee power & energy magazine

45



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover4
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