IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 49

Everything is in place for the event and, once again,
the entire nation's energy sector anxiously awaits
what the future holds.
multiple contingency conditions. Last, but not least, system
planning and protection teams were on standby, in case the
system topology changed in a way that specific operating
guides needed to be created quickly.
Over the years, it had been observed that the amount
of nonlinear loads in the system was growing, causing an
increase in fifth-harmonic currents, particular during periods of shoulder peak and light load. Increased levels of fifthharmonic currents were commonly observed during weekend days and intensified during events like the World Cup
games. It is believed that the very large number of TV sets
turned on during such events changed the mix of the loads
and thus could impact system performance (see "Frequency
Disturbances During the Super Bowl" in this issue). Therefore, during the event, the harmonic filters associated with
the Itaipu HVdc link (third and fifth harmonics) were kept
in service continuously to help capture harmonic currents
coming from the system. At the end of the 2014 World Cup,
the entire Brazilian energy sector community experienced
a bittersweet moment: like other groups participating in the
event organization, they were relieved (and somewhat happy)
while the rest of the country was mourning an epic defeat
in the semifinals, Germany 7 and Brazil 0. No major events
in the transmission grid were registered. The operation
schemes and guidelines worked perfectly, unlike the Brazilian soccer team defense.

The 2016 Summer Olympic
and Paralympic Games
Now that the 2014 World Cup was over and without incident, it was time to start preparing for the Olympic Games,
3-21 August 2016, and Paralympic Games, 7-18 September
2016. Government officials and the power sector community
know that the past success with the FIFA World Cup will not
guarantee an easy path in preparation for the larger Olympics and Paralympics. At least this time, the majority of the
events will be concentrated in the Rio de Janeiro city area.
The soccer tournament is a notable exception, with competition venues in other states to take advantage of the stadium
infrastructure put in place for the World Cup.
As during the preparation for the World Cup, the Ministry of Mines and Energy created an Olympics WG in June
2012, four years before the event. The approach was very
similar to the previous WG: assess the strategic points and
plan to secure energy supply to these points. The initial
assessment identified four main clusters in which the competitions took place, together with the two main city airports,
november/december 2016

tourist sites, and lodging complexes. During the three-year
period between September 2012 and September 2015, the
WG performed extensive preparations to meet International
Olympic Committee (IOC) requirements. Figure 8 shows
an overview of the supply grid to the Olympic clusters in
the Rio de Janeiro metro area. It is important to note that,
unlike in the World Cup event, the major system upgrades
identified in the planning studies and WG assessment were
implemented on time.
The result of the WG efforts during this three-year
period is a series of technical reports summarizing the
studies performed and recommending an action plan to
ensure the energy supply to the Rio de Janeiro metro area
that exceeds the Brazilian ISO reliability criteria and also
is in accordance with the IOC requirements.
The Olympic venue facilities will have different levels
of electric power redundancy depending on their importance to the event. However, the energy supply to all facilities must be reliable, resilient, and redundant. The IOC
requires that the supply to each venue cluster must come
from at least two different sources: from the bulk power
system (230 kV and above) as well as from the distribution
grid. This criterion is more inflexible than the one required
by FIFA, which states that only the distribution system
must comply with the redundancy. Additionally, backup
generators will be installed at each location to ensure that
the competition as well as the broadcast in the game venues
is not interrupted in case of outages in the energy supply
system. Figure 9 shows a typical energy supply configuration to a game venue. Even more redundancy was envisioned for the International Broadcast Center (IBC). The
IBC building will have its energy supply from two different
sources in the distribution grid plus three local generation
sites, with the ability to generate for 48 h autonomously,
thus allowing continuous broadcasting even under very
severe system conditions.
During the games, the import levels of the Rio de Janeiro
and Espirito Santo area will be limited to 6,300  MW to
not incur reliability criteria violations under simultaneous outages of two of the 500-kV lines associated with the
bulk power system that supplies the area (normal import
levels are 7,400 MW). The Angra dos Reis Nuclear power
station, consisting of two units that generate about 2,000 MW,
is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro and is an essential component of the energy supply of the states of Rio
de Janeiro and São Paulo. If one of the generating units
at the nuclear power plant were to go out of service, the
ieee power & energy magazine

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover4
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