IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 54

60.06

60.04

60.02

60.00

59.96

End of Replay

Announcer's
Voices Abruptly
Stopped by
Power Outage

59.98

PSFM1FREQ
PSFM3FREQ
PSFM6FREQ

:0
0
20

:3
9
20

20

:4
0

:0
0

:0
0
:3
8

:0
0
20

:3
7

:0
0
:3
6
20

20

:3
5

:0
0

59.94

figure 1. Recorded frequency around the time of the Superdome power outage of Super Bowl XLVII. The horizontal axis is time of day (EST).

per minute. Several load types were monitored: residential,
water pumping, water treatment, sports bar, and individual
television load. Digital fault recorders (DFRs) were put in
place to monitor current and voltage (where available) for the
identified load classes. The DFR equipment continuously
recorded root mean square (RMS) and phase angle data at
rates ranging from six to 30 samples per second.

The system frequency was recorded at several locations around Virginia and new York State. We observed
that frequency results from these separated locations were
essentially identical. This finding confirms that these load
changes are widely distributed across the interconnection, and therefore the exact location at which frequency
is observed is of negligible significance. The recording
rate for the frequency was six samples per second. The
recording equipment was synchronized to gPS satellite
clocks where available; otherwise, the recorders were synchronized manually using remote access connections.
Frequency events were indicated by triggers based on
rate of change of frequency, change in frequency over a specific time interval (delta frequency), or absolute frequency
outside a specified range. These events occur much more
often during Super Bowls than during the same time period
on non-Super Bowl days.
Timing of events during the game, such as commercial
breaks and important plays, was recorded manually using
timing obtained from clocks synchronized to the national
Institute of Science and Technology. A review of the logged
times with footage of the game has led us to conclude that
these times are accurate to ±1 s. This was deemed acceptable
since the frequency change events of interest were generally much longer than a few seconds. It should be noted that
because of varying delays in broadcast, cable, and satellite
television networks, as well as Internet webcasts, the images
being displayed on television sets across the interconnection are not precisely synchronized. The transmission delays
may vary by a few seconds from one location to another,
and digital (Internet) distribution was found to introduce a
much longer delay than the typical television, cable, or satellite broadcasts.

60.06

60.04

Frequency Events

PSFM1FREQ
PSFM3FREQ
PSFM6FREQ

Power Outage: Super Bowl XLVII
(3 February 2013)

60.02

0
37
:3
20
:

5

View of Blacked
Out Lights
(Very Dark)

37
:2

37
:2
20
:

5
37
:1
20
:

20
:

37
:1

0

59.94

Replay
(Bright)

0

Live
View of
Field
(Darker)

59.96

20
:

59.98

View of Ravens'
Sideline (Darker)

60.00

figure 2. Recorded frequency during multiple television
images around the time of the Superdome power outage.
The horizontal axis is time of day (EST).
54

ieee power & energy magazine

A significant event was found to have occurred around
20:37:20. As shown in Figure 1, frequency sharply rose
50 mHz over a 10-s interval.
Power system frequency monitors (PSFMs) 1 and 3
measured frequency in Virginia. PFSM 6 measured frequency in new York. The small constant difference among
them is due to calibration differences and is not significant.
Figure 1 shows the time of the power outage that occurred
at the Superdome during the game. A review of the television
footage found that the frequency jump coincided not with the
power outage itself but rather with the time that the television
broadcast changed from a replay to a "live" view of the interior of the stadium. The replay was a relatively bright image,
while the subsequent views showing the inside of the stadium
after the power outage were much darker. Figure 2 shows
how the frequency and the slope of frequency changed as the
television images became progressively darker.
november/december 2016



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - Cover4
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