IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 64

connected to the network, but, just when they were needed
most, the sVcs were tripped out of service due to the high
harmonic currents. seven large sVcs were lost in one minute (steps #1-5).
table 1. The sequence of principal events
leading to the blackout.

64

Steps Time (EST)

Event

In Figure 6

#1

02:44:17

Tripping of SVC CLC
12 at the Chibougamau
substation

1

#2

02:44:19

Tripping of SVC CLC
11 at the Chibougamau
substation

2

#3

02:44:30

Reclosing without
restarting of SVC CLC
12 at the Chibougamau
substation

-

#4

02:44:32

Reclosing without
restarting of SVC CLC
11 at the Chibougamau
substation

-

#5

02:44:33-
02:44:46

Shutdown of the four
SVCs at the Albanel and
Némiscau substations

3

#6

02:45:16

Tripping of SVC CLC
2 at the La Vérendrye
substation

4

#7

02:45:24.682

Tripping of line 7025
at the Jacques Cartier
substation

-

#8

02:45:24.936

Tripping of line 7044
at the La Vérendrye
substation of

-

#9

02:45:24.948

Tripping of line 7016
at the La Vérendrye
substation

-

#10

02:45:24.951

Tripping of line 7026 at
the Chamouchouane
substation

-

#11

02:45:24.996

Phase C fault on
transformer T1 at the
La Grande-4 generating
station

-

#12

02:45:25.003 Phase A fault on
transformer T3 at the
La Grande-4 generating
station

-

#13

02:45:25.042 Tripping of line 7045 at
the Grand Brulé and La
Vérendrye substations

5

#14

02:45:31

Churchill Falls and
Manicouagan generation
separates

6

#15

02:45:49

The entire system
collapses

7

ieee power & energy magazine

Following the loss of the dynamic voltage support provided by the sVcs, the instability of the power system
became inevitable. after 8 s of rapid voltage decline, the
first 735-kV line tripped (step #7), followed by four other
lines 1 s later. These tripped lines resulting in the "separation" of the La Grande generating stations from the load
centers in the south of the province (step #13). when the
load disconnected from the generation, there was a sudden jump in the voltage at the generating stations, causing
faults on single-phase units of two La Grande-4 transformers (steps #11 and #12) and in the surge arrestor of a shunt
reactor at némiscau substation.
Following the separation of the La Grande network, frequency fell rapidly, and automatic load-shedding systems
could not offset the loss of approximately 9,500 mw of generation from the La Grande complex and stop the frequency
decline. The churchill Falls and manicouagan generation
complexes separated (step #14) and within a few seconds the
entire system collapsed (#15).
Figure 7 shows the decline in voltage produced by the
increased reactive power demand from transformers affected
by Gics. The tripping of line 7025 followed by the separation of the La Grande network are also shown, together with
the resulting spike in voltage (overvoltage) that damaged
transformers T1 and T3 at La Grande-4.

System Restoration
in 1989, the system restoration strategy was to stabilize the
islands that survived, delimit the system restoration procedure into one main restoration island or basic minimum
power system (bmps) and approximately 11 other islands
(subsystems), and restore these systems in parallel. The
bmps would then be synchronized with the maisonneuve
subsystem (Greater montréal area) to form the main transmission network, followed by synchronizing the other subsystems. meshing the main network and picking up load
would then allow for normal operation to return and the
interconnections with neighboring systems to be restored.
Figure 8 illustrates the restoration of the system in march
1989, showing the main subsystems and the time of synchronization with the main system. Fortunately, the restoration
of the single bmps (manic-2/outardes-3 generating stations to Lévis substation to nicolet substation to boucherville substation) went as planned as did the restoration of
the maisonneuve subsystem (beauharnois generating station
to châteauguay substation to hertel substation to boucherville substation), and the two islands were synchronized at
5:14 a.m., approximately two and a half hours after the system collapsed, to form the main transmission network.
unfortunately, equipment unavailability (planned and
forced outages) and operating incidents affected the restoration of the other subsystems and thus the timely completion
of the restoration plan. For example, the unavailability of a
large number of shunt reactors delayed the restoration of the
LG-2-duvernay subsystem (bay James west corridor). For
november/december 2016



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