IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 66

The system blackout caused both equipment damage
and unavailability, hindering system restoration as well as
system operation once power was restored.
(Greater montreal) went relatively smoothly. however, the
restoration of certain subsystems was hindered by key equipment unavailability, most notably shunt reactors. Following
the blackout, hydro-Québec put procedures in place to better
track the unavailability (planned and forced outages) of equipment to ensure the validity of the restoration plan. This culminated in the development and implementation of an operational
tool based on a knowledge database and an expert system for
determining a valid restoration plan using the strategies in the
knowledge database and current equipment availability.
shunt reactors were also added to the power system to
add greater flexibility to the restoration plan. There are now
five main restoration islands or bmpss available for system restoration, providing redundancy in case of equipment
unavailability following a blackout. one of the principal lessons learned was the need to have a diversity of restoration
strategies and alternative, studied, and verified restoration
paths in case of equipment unavailability.
other lessons also learned included that the hydro-Québec
system restoration plan uses controlled switching of breakers
to initially prepare and configure all installations for restoration, which is performed using supervisory control. in 1989, a
new control function was installed in the Laurentides region to
automatically perform the controlled switching for all installations, allowing hundreds of breakers to perform the controlled

switching in just several minutes. in contrast, for the other
regions, the preparatory controlled switching was performed
manually using supervisory control and took much longer. Following the blackout, the function for automatically performing
the controlled switching was implemented in all regions.
There was the possibility of another severe geomagnetic
storm, and it was recognized that hydro-Québec had no real
means of identifying or measuring the amplitude of such storms.
Furthermore, no operating procedures existed for operating the
power system under such conditions. consequently, in august
1989, an operating directive was put in force to direct and guide
system operations under geomagnetic disturbance conditions.

Post-Event Studies

Voltage (p.u)

after the system was restored, hydro-Québec undertook a
comprehensive analysis of the system failure. many power
systems were affected by the march 1989 storm, but there
were three reasons why the hydro-Québec power system was
especially affected: 1) the length of the La Grande transmission network, consisting of five lines, each about 1,000 km
long; 2) the absence of series compensation at the time to
reduce Gic flows; and 3) the settings of sVcs used to maintain
system voltage and respond to reactive power fluctuations.
The large Gic flow in the system caused transformer saturation that generated a high level of harmonics and tripped sVcs.
a review of measurements taken just
prior to the system collapse showed
the harmonic spectrum at different
Voltage Profile: Phase AN
2.40
moments of the event (examples
2.30
Substation: Jacques-Cartier
from albanel and La Verendrye sub2.20
Event: System Balckout
2.10
stations are shown in Tables 2 and 3).
Date: 13 March 1989
2.00
Failure of Transformer T3 at LG4
1.90
Time: 2:45:23:300 a.m.
This analysis showed that current harFailure of Transformer T1 at LG4
1.80
1.70
monic levels are usually much higher
1.60
Separation
of
the
than voltage harmonics, and voltage
1.50
1.40 Lo Grande Complex Network
harmonics are more severe close to
1.30
Tripping of Line 7025
1.20
sVcs. referring to Tables 2 and 3,
1.00
at Jacques-Cartier
it is evident that the harmonic spec0.90
0.80
trum varies according to the measure0.70
0.60
ment location within the same sub0.50
station and that the harmonic levels
0.40
0.30
at two 735-kV substations may be
0.20
0.10
quite different.
0.00
The circulation of current har0
19
38
57
76
95
114 133 152 171 190
Cycles
monics created voltage harmonics
and at the 735-kV voltage level, the
equivalent measurement method
figure 7. The voltage collapse and over-voltages as observed at the Jacques-Cartier
was
to use voltage asymmetry
substation.

66

ieee power & energy magazine

november/december 2016



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