IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016 - 67

Voltage Asymmetry = 100 # (V + - V -) / (V + + V -) .
as shown in Table 4, at different substations, asymmetry
measurements indicate there were large asymmetry values
in the north and center of Quebec and smaller values in the
south. The highest value was observed at the arnaud sub-

station close to the st. Lawrence river, followed by the La
Grande-2 generating station in the far north. The value was
below 3% close to the load centers in the south.
To understand how these high harmonics and voltage
asymmetry values were induced, the effects of Gics on the
power system using the electromagnetic transient program

La Grande 3 - Saguenay Subsystem

Churchill - Arnaud Subsystem

S
10H11

Montagnais
Manic 5 - Saguenay Basic Minimum
Subsystem
Power System #1

Albanel

MANIC 5

Abitibi Subsystem
Abitibi

Churchill
Falls

6H20
Chibougamau

S

Micoua

S 11H52

S
Bersimis 1&2

6H33

Chamouchouane

S
7H36

Lévis

CH

Arnaud

Manic 2

Manic Ouagan

Nemiscau

La Grande 2 - Duvernay Subsystem
LG 3
Le Moyne
LG 2
Chissibi

Jacques-
S 9H15
Cartier
Outaouais
Subsystem

Gaspesie Subsystem
Rimouski

Laurentides

S

Bersimis - Laurentides
(Québec City) Subsystem

14H08

Mauricie River Valley Subsystem
Trois-Riviéres
Mauricie

Chénier

Des Cantons

S

S

7H43

4H30

S 13H12

S
Duvernay

Ceenb

Richelieu
(Eastern Townships) Subsystem

Nicolet

CH

Outaouais

Gaspésie

Sherbrooke

5H14

Boucherville
Hertel

Châteauguay
S

Synchronization Point
Synchronization Time
Is Shown in GREEN

Beauharnois

Maisonneuve
(Greater Montreal) Subsystem

figure 8. An illustration of the system restoration on 13 March 1989.
november/december 2016

ieee power & energy magazine

67



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2016

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