IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - November/December 2017 - 57

A coordinated effort by transmission and distribution entities
is needed to determine the appropriate use of future DER capa-
bilities. Some DERs can ride through disturbances, contribute
reliability services, and follow dispatch signals. These capabili-
ties are starting to be used either directly or through aggrega-
tors for a number of emerging services (e.g., demand response,
microgrids, and VPPs). As DER capabilities evolve to include
advanced controls (e.g., active power control) and monitoring,
transmission and distribution utilities will need to expand their
coordination activities if they are to maintain BPS reliability.
The DERTF has recommended the following:
✔ NERC should develop a set of guidelines to assist in
modeling and assessments, such that BPS owners/op-
erators can account for the impact of DERs.
✔ Data requirements and sharing of information across the
transmission-distribution interface should be further eval-
uated to allow for adequate assessment of future DER
deployments. The important near-term issue is sharing
of information to facilitate accurate modeling for trans-
mission planning and operations. At some point, addi-
tional consideration may be needed for stability, protec-
tion, forecasting, reactive needs, and real-time estimates
for operating needs.
✔ Based on reliability considerations for modeling pur-
poses, generation from DERs should not be netted with
load as penetration increases. Load and DER should be
explicitly modeled in 1) steady-state power flow and
short-circuit studies and 2) dynamic disturbance ride-
through studies and transient stability studies.
✔ Dynamic models for different DER technologies are
available and should presently be used to model the

✔

✔

✔

✔

evolving interconnection requirements and related per-
formance requirements.
A coordinated effort by distribution and transmission
entities is needed to determine appropriate use of future
DER capabilities. This must be coordinated with voltage
and frequency ride-through performance and potentially
coordinated with UFLS programs and BPS performance
under the NERC PRC-024 standard. Note that PRC-024
was developed with BPS issues in mind; where PRC-
024-2 and desired distribution-level protection and opera-
tions conflict, the transmission and distribution utilities
will need to coordinate the required DER ride-through
settings to meet BPS reliability needs while minimizing
distribution impacts.
Further examination is needed to determine whether de-
mand-side management should be included in the DER
definition and if the DER definition should be added to
the NERC glossary and/or the NERC Functional Model.
The limited existing knowledge and experience of modeling
DER in system planning studies and operating with higher
levels of DER will require future collaborative research,
knowledge exchange, and learning. The industry should col-
laborate with vendors of power system simulation software
and DER product vendors to continuously enhance models
for DER representation in BPS planning studies. The NERC
can assist with coordination across the industry to facilitate
the reliable integration of DER into the BPS.
The DER report findings and recommendations will be
addressed by ERSWG going forward. There is much
work to do to ensure that DER is integrated into the
BPS in a manner that ensures reliable operations while

IEEE Standard 1547rev
Ride
Through
Category
I

DER
Vendors

Category
II

Category
III
Market Analysis
* Costs
* Market Segment
* Other Analyses

Category
A

Voltage
Regulation

Category
B

AGIR∗

Control/Trip Settings
* Ranges of Adjustability
* Default Parameters

Stakeholder Engagement
* Distribution Utilities
* Bulk System
Operators and Planners
* DER Developers
* Others

Impact Assessment
* Technical Conditions: Type, Capacity, and Future
Penetration of DER, Type of Grid Configuration, etc.
* Nontechnical Issues: DER Use Case, Impacts on
Environment, Emissions, and Sustainability, etc.

∗State Regulator, Area EPS, or Bulk System Operator, etc.

figure 9. The sets of requirements that specify technical capabilities and settings for a DER under normal and abnormal
operating conditions (performance categories).
november/december 2017

ieee power & energy magazine

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