Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 104

con CB de CC también permiten que el sistema de protección diferencie entre fallas en las zonas de protección internas y externas. Debido a estos múltiples requisitos para el
inductor de serie, no está claro si el inductor de serie será
considerado parte de futuras unidades de CB de CC o parte
del sistema de protección de CC.
En el lado negativo, los inductores de serie almacenan
energía y vuelven menos preciso al control de tensión de las
redes de CC. Adicionalmente, en el caso de una interrupción
por falla, la energía almacenada en el inductor deberá ser
disipada por los CB de CC.

Principales topologías de los CB de CC
Varios fabricantes han invertido considerablemente para el
desarrollo extensivo de los CB de CC a niveles de tensión
y corriente adecuados para la última tecnología de transmisión de CC. Estos fabricantes han reportado resultados
de pruebas de laboratorio de prototipos de CB de CC en
el rango de 40 a 80 kV con capacidades de interrupción de
la corriente de falla pico de aproximadamente 15 a 20 kA.
Los planes requieren que estas unidades se conviertan en
módulos estándar a través de conexiones en serie para alcanzar niveles de tensión en CC más altos. Los informes de los
fabricantes y los datos de las instalaciones recientes indican
que no hay obstáculos considerables para la implementación
de CB de CC de 300-400 kV.
La Unión Europea ha destinado recursos considerables
para la investigación sobre los CB de CC, lo cual incluye las
pruebas de varios CB de CC de gran escala (70-80 kV) en
un laboratorio independiente. Existe un esfuerzo conjunto de
varios fabricantes, gestores de red, académicos y consultores
que está ayudando a la industria a comprender mejor los CB
de CC y cómo controlarlos y probarlos de una mejor manera,
conocer cuáles son sus límites de funcionamiento y modos de
falla y determinar cómo interactúan con los componentes de la
red de CC. También se está realizando un esfuerzo considerable para alcanzar la interoperabilidad entre varias tecnologías

y productos de CB de CC que provienen de diferentes fabricantes y también hacia el inicio de la estandarización.
Se han propuesto varias topologías de CB de CC diferentes, y algunos prototipos de diversas capacidades nominales
han sido sometidas a pruebas de campo. Recientemente se
han patentado muchas tecnologías relacionadas con los CB
de CC, y se continuará investigando intensivamente en esta
área. Es posible agrupar la mayoría de los diseños de CB de
CC en dos familias principales: 1) mecánicos e 2) híbridos
que usan válvulas semiconductoras.

CB mecánicos para CC
Topología
El gráfico 2 muestra una topología típica de un CB mecánico
de HVdc e ilustra lo siguiente.
1) La rama principal consiste en un disyuntor capaz de
sostener la creación del arco. Normalmente, se trata
de un interruptor al vacío (VI, por sus siglas en inglés)
de CA con un mecanismo de accionamiento mejorado
para reducir el tiempo de apertura.
2) Las ramas de inyección de corriente incluyen capacitores precargados. Esta topología muestra dos ramas.
Este diseño permite dos operaciones en un corto tiempo, lo cual podría ser vital considerando el tiempo
que pueden tardar los condensadores en cargar. La segunda rama no es necesaria si el ciclo de servicio del
disyuntor necesario consiste en una sola abertura. Los
interruptores VI3a y VI3b son similares a VI1. La frecuencia resonante natural del circuito LC puede ser aumentada a valores prácticos en el rango de 2-3 kHz, lo
cual reduciría los tamaños requeridos de L 1 y C 1 . Los
resistores R 1 son necesarios para la carga del capacitor.
3) El disipador de energía consiste en protectores de sobretensión. Estos protectores están basados en protectores
de sobretensión estándar ampliamente usados en sistemas de CC para la protección contra sobretensiones.

IT1

Idc
Fuente de
CC

Ldc

T1

S1

Disyuntor
residual
IT2

Rama auxiliar
Cable de CC
T2A

+
-

Vdc

S2
VdcCB

Rama principal
SA

T2B
Falla

Carga de
CC
+
-

Absorbente de energía

gráfico 4. Un diagrama de un CB híbrido para CC.
104

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mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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