Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 105

4) El disyuntor residual, VI2, solamente interrumpe una
pequeña corriente. Este dispositivo no necesita tener
una alta velocidad de apertura.
5) El inductor limitador de corriente L cc reduce la tasa
de aumento de la corriente de falla.
El CB mecánico para CC presentado también se conoce
como inyección de corriente de CB de CC, porque emplea
condensadores precargados C 1a y C 1b, que aumentan considerablemente la velocidad de cada operación.

Principios operativos
El gráfico 3 presenta la interrupción de una corriente de falla
de CC máxima de 15 kA con un CB de CC mecánico en
un sistema de CC de 400 kV, suponiendo una falla de CC
a t = 0 s. Se usa un inductor de serie (L cc) de 240 mH. El
gráfico 3(a) muestra que se necesitan aproximadamente 8 ms
para que los contactos VI1 se separen completamente. En ese
instante, VI3 se cierra, inyectando una corriente oscilante,
I S3, la cual facilita un cruce cero de I VI1 . Cuando el arco

16

16

14

14

12
10
8
6
4

6
4

0

0
2

4
6
Tiempo(ms)
(a)

8

10

IT1

Señal de disparo
S1 Comienza a abrirse
S1 Completamente abierta

0

2

4
6
Tiempo(ms)
(b)

8

10

8

10

25

VdcCB

600

20
Energía (MJ)

400
Vdc

200
0

Tiempo de supresión
de la corriente de falla

-200
-400

IT2

8

2

800

Tensión (kV)

10

2

0

Tiempo de apertura
de S1

12

Idc

Corriente (kA)

Corriente (kA)

es interrumpido en VI1, la corriente CCI cc es transferida al
absorbente de energía y la tensión VccCB aumenta abruptamente al recorte de la tensión de los protectores de sobretensión, el cual es de habitualmente 1.5 p. u. (600 kV). Esta alta
tensión trae una tensión negativa a lo largo del inductor L cc
(400-600 kV), lo cual permite la supresión de la corriente de
falla. La corriente de falla se extingue completamente luego
de 20 ms adicionales [gráfico 3 (b)].
Los fabricantes suelen especificar el tiempo de recuperación de la tensión (8 ms en el gráfico 3) como el indicador
clave del desempeño de los CB de CC. La corriente de falla
pico se especifica como un indicador único de capacidad de
interrupción (15 kA a 8 ms), el cual es un parámetro clave
para dimensionar el inductor de serie L cc . El dimensionamiento podría variar para diferentes tecnologías de CB de
CC debido a las diferentes velocidades de apertura.
La disipación de energía esperada por las protecciones en
este caso (E SA) es de alrededor de 83 MJ, como se ve en el gráfico 3(d). El gráfico 3 presenta la interrupción de la corriente

0

2

4
6
Tiempo(ms)
(c)

15
ESA

10
5

8

10

0

0

2

4
6
Tiempo(ms)
(d)

gráfico 5. Las cuatro gráficas muestran una falla en CC en un sistema de CC de 400 kV interrumpido por un CB híbrido
de CC que usa un inductor de serie de 76 mH ( L cc). (a) La falla ocurre en t = 0 s, y los picos de corriente a 15 kA. (b) S 1
comienza a abrirse cuando la corriente se transfiere a T2 . (c) El gráfico indica el nivel de tensión de la protección. (d) La
disipación de energía total esperada (E SA) es de 21 MJ.
mayo/junio 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

105



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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