Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 115

Los alimentadores de HVdc en áreas de gran carga ofrecen
una inyección de energía controlable y rentable que evita los
corredores de transmisión de CA congestionados.

o subestaciones adyacentes. Al igual que los PST, el reciente
ST promete controlar los flujos de energía reales en los circuitos de transmisión, pero también tiene la capacidad única
de controlar el flujo de energía reactiva.
Los SVC o STATCOM utilizan semiconductores de potencia para controlar la cantidad de compensación de energía
reactiva en lugares críticos. En condiciones normales de funcionamiento del sistema, estos controlan continuamente la
inyección o absorción de energía reactiva, manteniendo un
óptimo perfil de tensión de red. Durante las perturbaciones
del sistema, pueden contrarrestar rápidamente los transitorios de tensión, reduciendo así el riesgo de graves caídas o
colapsos de la tensión.
Un VFT consiste en un transformador rotativo para el
cambio de fases controlable junto con un sistema impulsor
y un control que ajustan el ángulo y la velocidad del transformador rotativo para regular el flujo de energía activa. Por
ejemplo, en 2009, una aplicación de red urbana instaló una
subestación VFT de 3 × 100 MW en Linden, Nueva Jersey,
conectando los sistemas energéticos de la interconexión
PJM con el New York ISO. Esta se instaló en paralelo con
vínculos que usan transformadores de cambio de fase a fin
de regular el flujo de energía síncrono en ambas direcciones
para los intercambios económicos de potencia entre las dos
regiones.
Los dispositivos de potencia del superconductor de alta
temperatura (HTS, por sus siglas en inglés) pueden permitir un suministro de energía de gran capacidad en redes
de transmisión y distribución. Los cables del HTS ofrecen
características eléctricas únicas: resistencia insignificante al
flujo eléctrico y capacidad nominal de gran intensidad, hasta
10 veces las de circuitos de cables convencionales. Los cables
del HTS también ofrecen la capacidad de limitar la corriente
de falla mediante la reversión a conductores de impedancia más altos durante corrientes mayores al umbral de un
superconductor. Recientemente, American Superconductor
Corporation (AMSC) y Commonwealth Edison llegaron a
un acuerdo para instalar el primer sistema de red eléctrica
resiliente (REG, por sus siglas en inglés) en Chicago. El sistema REG utiliza la tecnología HTS de AMSC y conectará
la infraestructura de energía eléctrica actual dentro de la ciudad de Chicago, a fin de potenciar una red urbana brindando
mejoras de capacidad de servicio de carga, resiliencia y uso
de los activos actuales.
Un convertidor de fuente de tensión (VSC) de HVdc es un
dispositivo de transmisión altamente controlable basado en
mayo/junio 2019

VSC que utiliza transistores bipolares de puerta aislada. Los
convertidores emplean convertidores modulares multinivel
en condiciones de alta potencia o puentes de convertidor que
utilizan patrones de conmutación de modulación por ancho
de pulso de alta frecuencia y niveles de energía más bajos.
Los convertidores VSC-HVdc pueden controlar tanto la
potencia activa como la reactiva, de forma rápida e independientes entre sí. El VSC-HVdc se utiliza para transmitir electricidad en rangos de potencia de 50 a 2,500 MW mediante
líneas aéreas o de forma invisible con cables subterráneos y
submarinos. Se ha utilizado para interconexiones de redes,
enlaces marítimos entre parques eólicos y plataformas de
petróleo y gas, y alimentación directa a centros urbanos. El
VSC-HVdc ofrece transmisión de potencia flexible en ambas
direcciones y funciones de soporte de redes de CA.

Capacidad mejorada y
control de flujo de energía

Soporte de tensión
dinámica
Área de
carga B

Área de carga A

~
~
~

~
Área de carga C

~
~
Área de carga D

Subestación de transmisión

Circuito HVac

Subestación de distribución

Convertidor

~ Generación local

Circuito de CC

Circuito EHVac

gráfico 3. Una interconexión de HVdc puede aumentar
el suministro de energía entre áreas de carga adyacentes,
proporcionar soporte de tensión dinámica a ambas áreas
de carga y también mejorar la capacidad de control del
flujo de energía de la red mallada.
ieee power & energy magazine

115



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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