Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 141

como un rectificador, y la estación de Montreal funcionó como un
inversor para comenzar el proceso de restauración en Montreal.
Los sistemas más grandes en funcionamiento o en construcción
están actualmente en China e India. Estos incluyen la enorme represa
de las Tres Gargantas en China, la cual enviará 22,500 MW tanto a
través de sistemas de CA como de HVdc. Otros sistemas a destacar en
China incluyen sistemas de HVdc de 600 kV y 800 kV con 11,000 kV,
y 10,000 MW en construcción. (China es un licitador activo en nuevos
proyectos). India tiene enlaces de 800 kV en funcionamiento, lo cual
incluye un enlace de tres terminales de 6,000 MW. Varios grandes enlaces de HVdc en los Estados Unidos están siendo o han sido considerados, lo cual incluye redes de 500 kV que conectan enormes parques
eólicos en áreas rurales lejos de los principales centros de población
(Wyoming) y grandes áreas urbanas (Las Vegas, Los Ángeles). También se ha considerado un enlace que se extienda hacia el este, desde
Oklahoma Panhandle hasta las grandes redes del medio oeste.
La disponibilidad de tiristores con altas capacidades nominales
de tensión y corriente ha evolucionado durante las últimas décadas al
punto en que las pérdidas de la estación del convertidor se encuentran
en el rango del 1 % (por estación) o menos. Para una línea de transmisión larga, las pérdidas de la línea son mayores que las pérdidas de
la estación. Durante mucho tiempo, ha habido información de nuevos
materiales para semiconductores (por ejemplo, carburo de silicio),
pero aún no han arribado.

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Tal vez sea de mayor interés la evolución desde los convertidores
en modo fuente de corriente a los VSC que utilizan la tecnología de
semiconductores de potencia con cierre de puerta. Una de las primeras aplicaciones de VSC en los Estados Unidos, y la primera en
usar convertidores modulares multinivel, es el enlace Trans Bay, un
sistema de cable submarino de 53 millas (85 km) que se encuentra
en funcionamiento desde 2010. Va desde Pittsburg, California, hasta
San Francisco, y tiene capacidades nominales de ± 200 kV CC, 400
MW. Se dice que proporciona el 40 % de la demanda energética del
área urbana de San Francisco. La pequeña huella (patio de maniobras
mínimo) de este proyecto de Siemens permite una aplicación urbana
efectiva.
Se han reportado en la bibliografía aplicaciones en el rango de los
500 kV, mucho más allá de los niveles introductorios de 125 kV de
hace pocos años atrás. Alemania está considerando enlaces de cable
norte-sur de VSC de HVdc para reemplazar las plantas nucleares que
se espera que sean desmanteladas. El objetivo es llevar la energía
eólica offshore desde el Mar del Norte a Baviera. En los Estados
Unidos, esta tecnología puede ser aplicada a parques eólicos offshore
a lo largo de la costa atlántica (al norte de Boston o a lo largo de la
costa de Nueva Jersey). El proyecto Soo Green Renewable Rail en el
medio oeste de los EE. UU. está recibiendo una gran atención. Este
es un sistema de cable de VSC de 500 kV subterráneo paralelo a una
vía de ferrocarril. Enviaría energía de la generación eólica en Iowa a
los suburbios de Chicago.

Perspectivas a futuro
En los Estados Unidos, ¿veremos grandes proyectos de HVdc de la
escala de los de China o la India? En mi opinión, probablemente


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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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