Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 28

La conversión de CA a CC permite un uso más eficiente de
los activos y servidumbre de paso existentes y, mediante
procedimientos de trabajo adecuados, se puede realizar con
interrupciones relativamente cortas.

✔ Mantener los conductores existentes: Los conductores

para las aplicaciones de CC no difieren físicamente de los
utilizados para las líneas de transmisión de CA, aunque
la clasificación de ampacidad diferirá según la aplicación
de CA o CC. Como tal, puede ser posible reutilizar los
conductores existentes si se encuentran en buenas condiciones. En la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, será necesario cambiar los aisladores porque su desempeño para
la contaminación del aire en tensiones de CC es inferior
si se lo compara con su desempeño en tensiones de CA.
Para minimizar los tiempos de interrupción, la sustitución
del aislador se puede realizar antes de la conversión a CC,
mientras la línea de CA permanece en funcionamiento.
✔ Instalar las estaciones convertidoras lo más cerca
posible de las terminales de CA existentes: Con el uso

generalizado de la tecnología de CC de alta tensión
(HVdc) del convertidor de fuente de tensión (VSC),
es más fácil encontrar una ubicación más cercana a la
terminal de CA existente, dado que las estaciones de
VSC tienen una huella reducida en comparación con
sus pares convertidores conmutados por línea (LCC).
Sin embargo, esto no siempre es sencillo, ya que las
configuraciones estándar de VSC de medio puente generalmente necesitan que se dispare una falla de CC
del lado de la CA, lo que produce largos tiempos de
recuperación no necesariamente compatibles con las
capacidades de la red de CA. Se están desarrollando varios disyuntores de CC experimentales, pero el
LCC-HVdc todavía se tiene en cuenta ampliamente
para aplicaciones de conversión de CA a CC.

Consideraciones desde la ingeniería
Fase CA
a

Fase CA
b

Fase CA
c

CC
+ polo
conductor

CC
+ polo
conductor

CC
+ polo
conductor

Si bien la conversión de una línea existente de CA a CC es una
solución de repotenciación atractiva, se deben evaluar varios
aspectos técnicos para verificar la viabilidad de la conversión
y para seleccionar la implementación más adecuada.

Configuración de polos

gráfico 1. La conversión de una línea de circuito único de
CA en un HVdc monopolo.

Fase CA
a

Fase CA
b

Fase CA
c

Uno de los desafíos de la conversión de CA a CC en líneas de
transmisión es que las líneas de CA cuentan con capacidad
nominal trifásica, que puede estar compuesta por un haz de
conductores, mientras que las líneas de CC están diseñadas
con configuraciones de dos o tres conductores y, en algunos casos, usan un electrodo a tierra para una trayectoria de
retorno neutral. De ello se deduce que el mapeo de los conductores de CA a un sistema de CC debe estudiarse caso por
caso para determinar la configuración de CC óptima, evitando modificar las estructuras existentes en la medida de lo
posible.
Línea de CA de circuito único a HVdc monopolo

CC + Polo

0
Retorno de emergencia

CC - Polo

gráfico 2. La conversión de una línea de circuito único de
CA en un monopolo flotante o un bipolo.
28

ieee power & energy magazine

Aunque un HVdc monopolo podría emplear efectivamente
las tres fases existentes en una línea de circuito único, la
corriente de retorno tendría que fluir hacia un electrodo de
conexión a tierra y a través de la tierra. El gráfico 1 ilustra
este concepto de conversión de las fases a, b y c, en la parte
superior del diagrama, a una tensión de CC positiva común,
debajo de la flecha roja. La implementación del retorno a
tierra implica pruebas y permisos prolongados en el sitio, y
el funcionamiento continuo de un electrodo a tierra puede
mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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