Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 47

Cómo fortalecer la
seguridad en la estabilidad
del sistema energético
modernas (como los ataques cibernéticos) hace imperativa
la resiliencia de la red.
Los factores que complican este problema varían tanto
como las propias amenazas. Por ejemplo, los sistemas de
suministro de energía de CA son solo moderadamente controlables y normalmente lentos para responder, mientras que
el uso a nivel mundial de recursos variables aumenta la velocidad de respuesta del sistema. Los dispositivos de electrónica de potencia a escala de red que emplean una tecnología
moderna de conmutación y control aumentan la velocidad
a la que se pueden modificar grandes flujos de energía, lo
que permite una mayor flexibilidad y una mayor resiliencia
general de la red.
mayo/junio 2019

Sin embargo, la creciente
dependencia en sistemas
digitales para la conmutación de señales de comando
y redes de sensores de
área extensa, por ejemplo,
aumenta en consecuencia
las vulnerabilidades ante los
ataques cibernéticos. Una
revisión de los ataques más
recientes a los sistemas de
transmisión y generación
revela varios problemas
relacionados con los actuales sistemas de control de
supervisión y adquisición de
datos (SCADA), controladores lógicos programables
(PLC) y errores del operador
debido a la falta de conciencia situacional. Junto con la
posibilidad de que los equipos de protección estén mal
configurados, estos problemas plantean una seria preocupación para la estabilidad
de los sistemas energéticos
modernos, que dependen en
gran medida de los sistemas
digitales.
Una tecnología particular
que se beneficia enorme©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/RETROROCKET
mente de una mayor digitalización es la transmisión de
corriente continua de alta tensión (HVdc). Como tecnología habilitadora desarrollada a mediados y finales del
siglo XX, las interconexiones de HVdc entre los sistemas de transmisión de CA se hicieron económica y técnicamente viables. La primera interconexión comercial
de HVdc fue el enlace de Gotland en Suecia, donde se
utilizaron dispositivos de conmutación basados en arco
de mercurio. El sistema fue puesto en funcionamiento
en 1954, y se convirtió en uno de los primeros sistemas en utilizar la tecnología de tiristores tras su evolución en
1970. A medida que las tecnologías de tiristores se han ido
desarrollando desde entonces, la tensión y la corriente nominal de los convertidores han ido en aumento. El rendimiento
y la sofisticación de las tecnologías de control han evolucionado rápidamente durante el mismo período. Los esquemas
HVdc de convertidores de fuente de tensión (VSC) que han
sido implementados en los últimos 20 años han sacado provecho de esquemas de control de energía más flexibles.
Los sistemas de HVdc ofrecen ventajas con respecto a la
transmisión de CA para distancias de transmisión muy largas cuando las líneas deben estar sumergidas y cuando se
ieee power & energy magazine

47


http://www.ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/RETROROCKET

Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 4
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 5
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 91
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 117
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 118
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 121
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 122
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 123
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 125
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 126
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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