Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 49

seguros y confiables de los sistemas de energía a gran escala.
Una plataforma WAMPAC típica, tal como se muestra en el
gráfico 1, está compuesta por dispositivos de red, sensores,
accionadores y controladores digitalizados tanto modernos
como tradicionales. Este diseño proporciona un conjunto de
soluciones que incluye dispositivos electrónicos inteligentes
(IED, por sus siglas en inglés), concentradores de datos de
fasores (PDC, por sus siglas en inglés) y diversas herramientas de comunicación para cumplir con los requisitos en aplicaciones de áreas extensas.
Las PMU (es decir, los sincrofasores) se instalan estratégicamente en los IED de las subestaciones para proporcionar mediciones de sincrofasores de alta velocidad y alta
precisión a 30-120 muestras con etiquetas de tiempo/s. Los
sincrofasores muestrean la magnitud y el ángulo de fase de
las cantidades de tensión y corriente utilizando una fuente
temporal común para la sincronización, generalmente proporcionada por un GPS de alta precisión. Esto permite a las
PMU acceder a la hora universal coordinada y, por consiguiente, proporcionar un sello de tiempo a los datos recogidos en una extensa área geográfica. Dentro de una sola subestación, puede haber múltiples PMU que recopilen datos en
tiempo real desde los transformadores de corriente y tensión,
así como el estado de los disyuntores en el campo a través
de una red de área local (LAN). A medida que se muestrean
los datos analógicos sin procesar, las mediciones digitales
de secuencia positiva son generadas por el convertidor analógico-digital y el módulo de bucle de fase sincronizada, así
como por un algoritmo de corrección de frecuencia. También se emplean módulos adicionales de validación e interpolación de datos para mejorar la calidad de los mismos.

Los PDC reciben los datos de los fasores, procesando y
concentrando la información de múltiples PMU. Una funcionalidad importante de la concentración de datos es la
alineación temporal, ya que los múltiples flujos de datos de
PMU deben alinearse de acuerdo con la referencia temporal
estándar proporcionada por el reloj del GPS. Otra función
que desempeña el PDC durante la concentración de datos es
la comprobación de errores y la interpolación de datos. Los
datos atípicos se identifican y descartan, y las ranuras de datos
que faltan se etiquetan utilizando la sintaxis especificada en
los protocolos de comunicación de PMU (por ejemplo, IEEE
C37.118 e IEEE C37.244). En algunos casos, los datos que
faltan se interpolan matemáticamente. Además de la concentración de datos, los PDC pueden realizar una mayor cantidad de tareas aprovechando su capacidad de cálculo:
1) almacenamiento de datos: almacenamiento continuo
de datos a nivel local en el disco duro o en la unidad
de estado sólido en los formatos de datos requeridos
(recuperables local y remotamente para su posterior
análisis)
2) control de acceso: compatibilidad con diversas funciones de control de acceso, como autenticación de cuentas basada en roles, antivirus, contraseñas seguras, registros de acceso y auditoría de puertos para cumplir
con las exigencias de protección de infraestructuras
críticas del Consejo de Confiabilidad Eléctrica de
Norteamérica (NERC, por sus siglas en inglés)
3) validación de datos y estadísticas: validación de los
datos recibidos de las PMU utilizando criterios de validación preestablecidos, al tiempo que se monitorea la
calidad, la latencia, y otras características de los datos.

Aplicaciones WAMPAC
Señal de sincronización con GPS

Centro de control y SCADA
Súper PDC

Controlador
HVdc

Aplicaciones
WAMPAC
locales

Reloj GPS

UTR

PMU

PDC

IED

UF
TC

PDC
PMU

CB
TT

IED

UF
TC

UTR

CB
TT

gráfico 1. Un esquema de la plataforma WAMPAC. TC: transformador de corriente; UF: unidad de fusión; UTR: unidad
terminal remota; TT: transformador de tensión.
mayo/junio 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

49



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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