Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 52

Está claro que la HVdc, en todas sus posibles configuraciones, proporciona servicios que favorecen la estabilidad
y la seguridad general en comparación con el sistema de
CA a gran escala que carece de HVdc. De este modo, para
asegurar la cohesión de las redes, las interacciones de otros
sistemas de servicios públicos con HVdc deben ser seguras. Es evidente que los sistemas HVdc están sujetos a las
limitaciones y vulnerabilidades del conjunto de sensores y
componentes digitales de los sistemas SCADA y WAMPAC.
El sistema energético a gran escala, tal como está diseñado,
proporciona una protección limitada: los ajustes en la mayoría de los dispositivos de protección se configuran generalmente para proporcionar protección a los equipos y no suelen tener en cuenta la estabilidad de un sistema energético en
su conjunto. Los contraejemplos incluyen relés de bloqueo
de oscilación de energía y esquemas de medidas correctivas
específicos del sistema. El primero previene la acción inadvertida del relé contra las oscilaciones del sistema, mientras
que el segundo inicia las acciones de conmutación para detener el colapso del sistema.
Con respecto a las vulnerabilidades señaladas anteriormente, es evidente que se debe prestar especial atención a los
sistemas de control de servicios públicos que interactúan con
la HVdc. Parte de la solución para proteger la HVdc incluye
una detección de intrusos adaptada a los protocolos SCADA

utilizados para la comunicación y autenticación de datos
en el sistema, específicamente entre las estaciones convertidoras y los centros de control del sistema de CA en cada
extremo. En comparación con los sistemas de TI, el plano
cibernético de los sistemas acoplados de CA/CC de alta tensión y los sistemas SCADA, en general, se beneficia por el
hecho de que la funcionalidad está relativamente restringida,
los protocolos son relativamente simples y los patrones de
comunicación son regulares. Esto permite la implementación de soluciones basadas en listas blancas (permitiendo
solo protocolos y patrones de comunicación que se sabe que
son correctos). Aunque estas medidas contribuyen notablemente a la seguridad del sistema acoplado, podemos mejorar
aún más la seguridad aprovechando la física del sistema. Por
ejemplo, es posible modelar el impacto de un comando de
orden de energía en el sistema de CA más amplio antes de la
ejecución de orden de energía (relativamente lenta) o mientras el sistema de CC aumenta su inyección de energía.
Por lo tanto, se necesitan técnicas de detección de alto
nivel para garantizar el funcionamiento nominal de la estación convertidora de HVdc. Los métodos de monitoreo de
salida, independientes de SCADA y de los dispositivos
asociados, son necesarios para proporcionar supervisión
al estado general del sistema. Estas técnicas de detección
garantizan que la acción de conmutación a nivel de hardware

Control de modelo del sistema de CA y CC
Protocolo ICCP
Señal de acuerdo
de exportación/importación

Sistema de energía 1
Centro de control
SCADA /EMS

Sistema de energía 2
Centro de control
SCADA /EMS

Medidas que usan DNP3

Medidas que usan DNP3

Vac, Iac, Pdc, VdcIdc,
estado de disyuntor de líneas de CA
Ángulo de encendido
Ratio Xmer de conmutación
Ángulo de encendido mínimo
Ángulo de encendido máximo
Sistema
energético 1 de
CA

Línea de teléfono segura

Línea de teléfono segura

Señal de despacho
de exportación/
importación

Señal de despacho
de exportación/
importación

Extremo de envío
ACCB

Vac, Iac, Pdc, VdcIdc,
estado de disyuntor de líneas de CA
Ángulo de encendido
Ratio Xmer de conmutación
Ángulo de encendido mínimo
Ángulo de encendido máximo

Extremo de recepción
DCCB

Convertidor

DCCB
Cable

Sistema
energético 2 de
CA

ACCB

Convertidor
Estación de HVdc

Estación de HVdc
Anillos SONET de doble fibra

gráfico 3. Funcionamiento básico del sistema HVdc. EMS: sistema de gestión de energía; ICCP: protocolo entre los centros de control; SONET: red óptica síncrona.
52

ieee power & energy magazine

mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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