Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 53

sea coherente con la acción comandada por sensores remotos y equipos SCADA.
Al detectar una acción de control potencialmente peligrosa debido a un ciberataque malicioso, error de medición,
error del operador u otras complicaciones imprevistas, el
controlador de flujo de energía se reconfigurará para garantizar la estabilidad y la seguridad del convertidor, al mismo
tiempo que conserva la mayor cantidad posible de funcionalidades en aras de la estabilidad de la red en su conjunto. Una
acción de control que sería motivo de preocupación incluye
flujos de energía inconsistentes comandados por un tercero
con la intención de desestabilizar la red eléctrica.

Marco para mejorar la resiliencia
Para ejemplificar el desafío principal en cuanto a convertidores, consideremos dos servicios públicos con un acuerdo
existente de transferencia de energía y con centros de control
conectados a través de un protocolo, como el Protocolo entre
los Centros de Control (ICCP, por sus siglas en inglés). Los
dos sistemas de CA de servicios públicos están conectados a
varias barras de CA. Además, existe un enlace HVdc entre
los dos servicios públicos. Este consiste en una subestación
convertidora (CA a CC) en la huella del primer servicio
público, la línea de HVdc en sí, y la subestación inversora
(CC a CA) en la huella del segundo servicio público. La
comunicación entre cada subestación de servicios públicos
se realiza a través del protocolo SCADA, como el Protocolo
de Red Distribuida (DNP3). Esta configuración es común en
sistemas que comparten energía a través de HVdc.

Supongamos que un atacante puede inyectar mensajes
DNP3 correctos en términos de sintaxis, pero inválidos en
términos físicos, entre la sala de control y la estación convertidora de HVdc. El infractor solo puede atacar el enlace
de datos entre el centro de control del servicio público y la
estación convertidora de HVdc. El mecanismo de detección
dispone de mediciones confiables procedentes del resto del
sistema de CA. La estimación del estado puede, entonces,
ayudar a validar la idoneidad de los comandos de orden de
energía y a validar la correcta ejecución de un comando
correcto.
El operador del sistema de transmisión determina el flujo
de energía en la línea de HVdc a partir de la solución óptima
de flujo de energía, considerando el acuerdo entre los centros de control de CA del extremo de envío y del extremo de
recepción. Todos los controles de la estación HVdc son locales. Estos incluyen controles de convertidores, disyuntores
de CA y CC, condensadores, filtros de CA y CC y relaciones
de toma de transformadores. Las mediciones y las señales
de estado de las estaciones HVdc se comunican a los centros
de control a través de DNP3. La comunicación entre las dos
estaciones HVdc puede realizarse, por ejemplo, mediante
anillos de fibra de red óptica síncrona.
El centro de control de cada sistema de CA puede visualizar el estado de las estaciones convertidoras de HVdc en
ambos extremos. Como se muestra en el gráfico 3, el centro
de control recibe mediciones de corriente, energía y tensión
de CA y CC; el ángulo de disparo del convertidor; los límites
del ángulo de disparo; el estado de los disyuntores de CA

Comando de
1 valor de punto de
ajuste de CC

Análisis fuera de línea
* Encontrar el número promedio
de iteraciones para los distintos
valores del punto de ajuste de
energía de CC para una
estimación de estado rápida.

Sistema energético 1
Centro de control
SCADA /EMS
Mediciones de
CC

Todo
bien

Sí

3
¿Energía medida ==
Energía estimada?

Mediciones de flujo de
línea de CA para todas
las líneas de CA

2

Estimación de
estado rápido para
determinar la inyección de
energía enla barra de CC

* Los PTDF se determinarán
en función de la transferencia
de energía entre el extremo de
envío y recepción en el sistema
HVdc. Los PTDF se utilizarán
para determinar las líneas de
transmisión que deben usarse
para el rápido enfoque de
estimación de estado.

No
Comando malicioso

gráfico 4. Detección y mitigación de ciberamenazas originadas en WAMPAC. PTDF: factor de distribución de la transmisión energética.
mayo/junio 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

53



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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