Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 59

La experiencia
de un operario
usando simulación
electromagnética
transitoria

✔ dificultades para ubicar la enorme nueva infraestruc-

tura, la cual requiere mayores transferencias de energía
que las instalaciones existentes.
El aumento en la aplicación de dispositivos electrónicos de potencia es el resultado inevitable de los cambios
sufridos por el sistema. Se requiere un análisis cuidadoso
para instalar y poner en funcionamiento a los dispositivos
de electrónica de potencia. Este artículo describe el uso
de simulaciones electromagnéticas transitorias (EMT) en
la red de transmisión francesa para enfrentar estos nuevos
desafíos en el contexto de la transición energética.

Avanzar hacia una mayor complejidad
Una tendencia a largo plazo: Inserción de sistemas HVdc y cables largos
de CA
El desarrollo a gran escala de fuentes de energía renovables en las redes de transmisión,
junto con el pedido público de evitar la construcción de nuevas líneas aéreas, ha llevado
a mayores aplicaciones para largos cables subterráneos de alta tensión (HV, por sus siglas
en inglés), el creciente respaldo de la energía reactiva dinámica y los nuevos enlaces HVdc
mediante cables de CC subterráneos. La creciente penetración de los dispositivos basados
en electrónica de potencia en la red tendrá un impacto significativo sobre el desempeño y la
confiabilidad de la red. Los dispositivos de electrónica de potencia, como los convertidores
de HVdc, los sistemas de transmisión de corriente alterna flexible (FACTS, por sus siglas
en inglés) y las centrales de energía eólica, requieren mejoras en los sistemas de control y
protección y una comprensión del comportamiento dinámico, lo cual es más complejo que
para los dispositivos de CA estándar. Por lo tanto, se requieren habilidades y herramientas
específicas para estudiar esta tecnología.

La simulación EMT se vuelve una herramienta de estudio obligatoria
debido a la complejidad de las redes
La simulación EMT brinda la solución más avanzada para modelar la red de transmisión en
detalle. Las herramientas de simulación numérica pueden ofrecer un modelado detallado de
los componentes y controles de HV al mismo tiempo que mantienen un buen equilibrio entre
los tiempos de solución, precisión y flexibilidad. El uso de herramientas de análisis EMT
para probar nuevas soluciones técnicas se ha vuelto cada vez más importante. Los estudios
EMT realizados para la instalación de nuevos equipos en la red garantizan los niveles más
altos de confiabilidad y disponibilidad de los equipos. Las herramientas de simulación de
tipo EMT deben proporcionar a los ingenieros de sistemas de energía resultados de simulación confiables, junto con capacidades avanzadas de visualización y análisis. La simulación
de fenómenos transitorios puede requerir una representación de componentes de red válidos
para la CC a través de una frecuencia de hasta cientos de kilohercios. Aunque el objetivo
final es usar modelos que dependen de la frecuencia, es difícil obtener una representación
aceptable de cada componente a lo largo de este rango de frecuencia, y para la mayoría de
los componentes no es posible desde la práctica. En algunos casos, aun si se encuentra disponible la versión de banda ancha de un modelo, este puede exhibir una ineficiencia computacional o requerir información altamente compleja.
Además de los intricados problemas técnicos, los servicios públicos deben lidiar con
diversos problemas de gestión relacionados a las capacidades del personal, rentabilidad

Por Sebastien Dennetiere, Hani Saad, Yannick Vernay,
Pierre Rault, César Martin y Bertrand Clerc
mayo/junio 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

59



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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