Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 63

escaneo de frecuencia calculan el funcionamiento en estado
estacionario para cada frecuencia.
Los planificadores implementaron dos modelos usando
EMTP para estudiar la amplificación de armónicos de
fondo. Primero, se creó un modelo de referencia de la red
francesa sin el desarrollo de la nueva red para un parque
eólico marítimo. Luego, se produjo un segundo modelo
que incluía cada nuevo desarrollo de la red y un parque
eólico mar adentro. Ambos casos modelaron toda la red de
400 KV. Debido a que los parques eólicos marítimos están
construidos en la costa noroeste, se modeló la red de 225
KV y se prestó particular atención al modelado de las redes
locales de 90 y 63 KV.
Los estudios requieren modelos detallados de los parques
eólicos. Dado que todos los datos para los futuros parques
eólicos marítimos franceses aún no se encuentran totalmente disponibles, los modelos de turbinas eólicas utilizan
60
50
40
X (Ω)

de acoplamiento común (PCC, por sus siglas en inglés) para
parques eólicos que buscan conexiones a las redes de transmisión. RTE determina las impedancias armónicas en función
de la disponibilidad mínima y máxima ante cortocircuitos
del sistema obtenida de CONVERGENCE. Usando estas dos
configuraciones de red, los estudios evalúan numerosas contingencias en el área de interés. Si bien las prácticas comunes
modelan una zona limitada de la red de transmisión principal, hoy es más práctico para los usuarios importar la red de
400 KV entera para cada configuración de red. Sin embargo,
los planificadores seleccionan cuidadosamente el área de
225 KV en CONVERGENCE antes de exportar el modelo
a EMTP. En algunos casos, los modeladores deben ingresar
partes de la red de menor nivel de tensión (90 KV) manualmente debido a que la base de datos disponible en CONVERGENCE está incompleta. En la mayoría de los casos, no se
necesita reducir la red entera a un equivalente de frecuencia
para los estudios armónicos porque el tiempo de simulación
permanece corto para todo el circuito detallado.
El estudio armónico final refleja los resultados de casi
1,000 simulaciones que corresponden a diferentes topologías de red y configuraciones para los interruptores de filtros
asociados con convertidores conmutados por línea (LCC,
por sus siglas en inglés). Los resultados generales se resumen como superficies en el plan RX, donde R es la parte de
real de la impedancia y X es la parte imaginaria. El gráfico
3 presenta un ejemplo de los resultados en una subestación
determinada.

30
20
10

Análisis armónico de fondo para una conexión a un
parque eólico marítimo

El primer grupo de parques eólicos marítimos se conectará
a la red de 225 KV con cables de CA aislados con polietileno reticulado. Dado que estos cables tienen una longitud de
38-60 km, inyectan una gran cantidad de energía reactiva.
La instalación terrestre de reactores de derivación limita la
energía reactiva inyectada a la red. En consecuencia, las tensiones de estado estacionario son más altas en el punto de
envío marítimo que en el punto de conexión terrestre, lo cual
requiere diseñar el transformador booster para controlar la
tensión en las conexiones independientemente de la tensión
de la red. El gráfico 4 muestra un diagrama de línea única de
una conexión genérica.
La evaluación de RTE de los problemas de armónicos
para las conexiones de los parques eólicos consta de mediciones y simulaciones in situ con EMTP. Las mediciones
de armónicos evalúan el nivel de tensiones de armónicos
que existen actualmente en la red. Las mediciones suceden durante varias semanas en las subestaciones donde se
conectarán los parques eólicos. Luego, las simulaciones
determinan la amplificación de estos armónicos debido a las
conexiones de los parques eólicos. Dado que la amplificación de armónicos de fondo es un fenómeno de estado estacionario, es satisfactorio realizar simulaciones solamente en
estado estacionario. Para tales estudios, las simulaciones de
mayo/junio 2019

0

0

5

10

15

20 25
R (Ω)

30

35

40

45

Rango armónico = 2

Rango armónico = 5

Rango armónico = 3

Rango armónico = 6

Rango armónico = 4

Rango armónico = 7

gráfico 3. Los primeros rangos de la impedancia armónica del sistema en la subestación RTE Penly.

Parque eólico
marítimo

Subestación
terrestre
RTE
Tierra Transformador
booster
Cable
submarino

Cable
terrestre

Reactor de
derivación

gráfico 4. Un diagrama de línea única de una conexión
de parque eólico.
ieee power & energy magazine

63



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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