Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 67

En el laboratorio en tiempo real de RTE, ahora hay réplicas de controlador para lo siguiente:
✔ cinco SVC de Alstom Grid (para los proyectos Merlatière y Domloup) y Siemens (para los proyectos Nanterre, Cheviré y Tourbe)
✔ dos enlaces de HVdc VSC de Siemens (para el proyecto INELFE)
✔ un enlace de HVdc LCC de GE (para el enlace
IFA2000)
✔ una estación de HVdc VSC de ABB (para el proyecto
Best Paths)
✔ réplicas de disyuntor de CC de ABB para una red de
CC de tres terminales (para el proyecto Best Paths).
Seis réplicas de HVdc VSC adicionales llegarán en los
próximos dos años.

resultados muestran una buena coincidencia, lo cual demuestra la precisión de las réplicas y el modelo en tiempo real.
Adicionalmente, el gráfico 9 ilustra la importancia de un
modelado preciso en un simulador en tiempo real: la curva
verde representa los resultados de la simulación en tiempo
real, donde se modeló el cable de CC como un modelo de

Estudio de eventos comunes
usando réplicas
Después de que suceden incidentes en los equipos electrónicos de potencia, los ingenieros realizan una evaluación de
riesgos completando varios pasos, que se muestran en el gráfico 6. Deben recopilarse datos de campo con mediciones de
tensión y corriente, incluidas la electrónica de potencia y las
configuraciones de red de CA, para analizar si el incidente
surgió desde el dispositivo electrónico de potencia o la red
de CA que lo rodea. Al completar la evaluación preliminar, a
menudo es necesario reproducir el incidente utilizando réplicas para determinar la causa principal del evento, realizar un
análisis de sensibilidad y, finalmente, identificar soluciones
de mitigación. De ser necesario, ocurre una discusión técnica con el fabricante de los equipos electrónicos de potencia, quien puede realizar modificaciones de software in situ
o proporcionar nuevas evaluaciones.
La sección a continuación brinda una descripción de
estudios recientes y en curso realizados sobre los dos enlaces de HVdc: el IFA2000, que conecta las subestaciones de
Les Mandarins (Francia) con Sellindge (Reino Unido), y el
INELFE, que conecta las subestaciones de Baixas (Francia)
con Santa Llogaia (España). La tabla 1 detalla los datos principales para ambos enlaces de HVdc.

(a)

(b)

gráfico 11. La tensión de CA de INELFE en el PCC, que 
muestra el problema de la oscilación de alta frecuencia: (a)
los resultados in situ y (b) las réplicas de INELFE.

PCC1

Validación con las mediciones in situ

DIS1

Zline2

Validación de las réplicas de IFA2000

El 20 de noviembre de 2016, ocurrió una falla de CC de polo
a tierra en los enlaces de IFA2000 durante la tormenta tropical Nannette, después de que el ancla de un barco se enganchara en los cables (gráfico 7). Este incidente se reprodujo
en las réplicas para validar el funcionamiento del sistema de
control y realizar una evaluación durante la sustitución del
cable dañado.
Los gráficos 8 y 9 muestran comparaciones entre las
mediciones in situ (curvas azules) y los resultados del simulador en tiempo real, donde se modeló el cable de CC usando
un modelo dependiente de la frecuencia (curvas rojas). Los
mayo/junio 2019

PCC2

Zline1

Enlace INELFE
MS

PTotal

H1
10 GW
L1
8 GW

PHVdc Estación 1 Estación 2

Zline3

DIS3
L3
1 GW

DIS2

MS
H2
10 GW

L2
11 GW

gráfico 12. La red equivalente alrededor del enlace INELFE de HVdc. MS: máquina síncrona; DIS: disyuntor.
ieee power & energy magazine

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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

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