Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 70

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I/O

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los controles de HVdc. Los resultados de la simulación fuera de
línea (es decir, el software de
dominio de los fasores) validan
este comportamiento. Es importante destacar que las réplicas del
simulador en tiempo real validan
la respuesta deseada de las mejoras de afinación de control propuestas antes de realizar modificaciones in situ, lo cual garantiza
un mejor desempeño general de
la red. Además, el simulador en
tiempo real proporciona una validación de los modelos de software
fuera de línea y ayuda a los ingenieros a identificar potenciales
soluciones.
Estudio paramétrico

Para algunos estudios, el análisis
paramétrico cubre una amplia
gama de configuraciones. Esta
sección presenta el desempeño del
sistema en respuesta a una falla de CA en el PCC del enlace
INELFE (gráfico 14) usando un estudio paramétrico. Dado
que varios parámetros pueden tener un impacto en el rendimiento de HVdc, la tabla 2 resume todas las variaciones de
los parámetros simulados, que incluyen puntos de ajuste de
energía activa y reactiva del enlace de HVdc, tipo de falla,
variaciones de nivel de corto circuito, y caídas de tensión.
Las pruebas consideraron un total de 1,920 combinaciones
diferentes de ajustes para los parámetros del sistema. A fin
de realizar una cantidad tan grande de pruebas, una herramienta paramétrica genera automáticamente todas las configuraciones.
Los casos de prueba simulados registran automáticamente
dos tipos de resultados para el procesamiento de datos: formas de onda de señal y el valor de señal máximo/mínimo.
Las formas de onda de señal incluyen todas las tensiones,
corrientes, señales de control y de protección pertinentes
que se utilizan para analizar el comportamiento de HVdc
específico para un caso de prueba determinado. Las señales
de máximo/mínimo incluyen las tensiones pico máximas/
mínimas, corrientes y duraciones de protección necesarias
para analizar el comportamiento general del sistema y realizar un estudio estadístico.

gráfico 17. Una configuración de simulación en tiempo real para el proyecto Best
Paths. I/O: entrada-salida.

En base a la secuencia de eventos, uno puede representar
la red equivalente como en el gráfico 12. Zline1 y Zline2 son
las líneas de CA equivalentes entre Francia y España. Dos
modelos de máquinas síncronas genéricas (H1 y H2) reproducen el modo de oscilación interárea. El enlace INELFE
funciona en modo de emulación de línea de CA, el cual responde de manera similar al comportamiento de una línea
de CA al aumentar/disminuir el flujo de energía activa del
enlace de HVdc como una función de las diferencias angulares entre las barras del convertidor de CA.
El modelo del simulador en tiempo real es una representación del equivalente del sistema que se muestra en el
gráfico 12. El simulador modela la siguiente secuencia de
eventos para imitar al evento de oscilación interárea.
✔ Etapa 1 (t<5 s): Todos los disyuntores están cerrados,
excepto el BRK3, que está abierto. Ocurre un intercambio de 2 GW entre el PCC1 y PCC2.
✔ Etapa 2 ( 5 s55 s): En esta etapa, existe transferencia de
carga, apertura de BRK2 y cierre de BRK3. Esto conduce a una mayor amortiguación de las oscilaciones.
El gráfico 13 muestra los resultados obtenidos utilizando
las réplicas de INELFE conectadas al simulador en tiempo
real. Los diagramas muestran la transferencia de energía a
través del enlace de HVdc y la diferencia de ángulo. Se presentan dos afinaciones de control diferentes: las curvas roja
(ajuste 1) y azul (ajuste 2) representan dos ganancias de control diferentes utilizadas para afinar el sistema de control de
emulación de CA. El gráfico muestra que las oscilaciones de
0.155 Hz pueden ser amortiguadas al afinar correctamente
70

ieee power & energy magazine

Estudio previo: Interacción entre HVdc-LCC y
HVdc-VSC
La nueva interconexión de HVdc entre Francia y el Reino
Unido, conocida como proyecto ELECLINK, será encargada
este año. Las estaciones convertidoras de este nuevo proyecto se conectan a las mismas barras de bus que el IFA2000
(gráfico 15). Los estudios preliminares analizaron el riesgo
mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

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Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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