Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 88

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gráfico 1. Tres configuraciones posibles para sistemas de HVdc que indican tensiones durante el funcionamiento normal
y tensiones y corrientes de falla potenciales durante fallas de polo a tierra. (a) y (d) un monopolo simétrico, (b) y (e) un
monopolo asimétrico con retorno metálico, y (c) y (f) un bipolo con retorno metálico.

fallas significa interrumpir la corriente CC de falla y aislar
el componente que falla. La interrupción de la corriente de
falla es mucho más compleja en redes de HVdc en comparación con los sistemas de CA, dado que las corrientes CC
de falla no tienen cruces a cero recurrentes de forma natural
y, sin contramedidas, aumentan rápidamente a valores inaceptables para los componentes de electrónica de potencia.
Por el contrario, las tecnologías utilizadas en las redes de
HVdc ofrecen opciones para compensar fallas más allá del
enfoque conocido de utilizar disyuntores en los sistemas de
CA existentes.

Requisitos funcionales
para la protección de redes HVdc

Categoría 1: altamente improbable

Impacto de la falla

Para habilitar un futuro sistema de energía rentable y confiable con redes de HVdc, el diseño de la protección de redes
de HVdc debe comenzar con la determinación de la probabilidad de que ocurran fallas en el sistema, su impacto en el
sistema y el tipo de equipo disponible para compensarlas.
Por lo tanto, el diseño de protección de redes de HVdc está

Categoría 2: impacto inaceptable
Categoría 3: riesgo inaceptable

Categoría 4: riesgo aceptable
Probabilidad de falla

gráfico 2. Un ejemplo de clasificación de fallas e impactos al sistema energético basado en el "Mémento de la
sûreté du système électrique" de RTE.
88

ieee power & energy magazine

estrechamente relacionado con el diseño general de la propia
red de HVdc y con la selección de los componentes dentro
de esta. En este contexto, nos referimos al diseño de la red
de HVdc en su totalidad como las elecciones que se tomaron para su estructura, es decir, el número de terminales,
una conexión de terminales radial o por malla, la capacidad
nominal de los nodos de CA-CC y el tipo de la configuración
y la conexión a tierra de la red, como el monopolo simétrico
conectado a tierra de alta impedancia o el monopolo o bipolo
asimétrico conectado a tierra de baja impedancia. Para la
selección de sus componentes, nos referimos a la tecnología utilizada para líneas de transmisión, los convertidores y
los equipos de compensación de fallas. La combinación de
todos estos aspectos determina la probabilidad de fallas en
el sistema y su impacto sin la protección de la red de HVdc.
El impacto de la falla en el sistema en términos de sobrecarga de corriente o sobretensión depende de la combinación
del tipo de falla, la conexión a tierra y la configuración de la
red de HVdc. Para fallas de polo a polo, independientemente
de la conexión a tierra y la configuración, las corrientes CC
de falla aumentan rápidamente y alcanzan un alto valor de
estado estacionario en ausencia de protección alguna. El
impacto de las fallas de polo a tierra depende del tipo de
conexión a tierra: para una red a tierra de baja impedancia, las potenciales corrientes de falla son altas, mientras
que para un sistema a tierra de alta impedancia, las posibles
sobretensiones en los polos saludables son altas (gráfico 1).
Las fallas que ocurren en el sistema se pueden agrupar
en diversas categorías, lo que indica la capacidad o incapacidad de aceptar su probabilidad e impacto, que se combinan
para determinar el riesgo (gráfico 2). El diseño resultante de
la protección de la red de HVdc dependerá en gran medida
del resultado de esta evaluación de riesgos y determinará
el impacto final de las fallas en el sistema. Por ejemplo, es
concebible que la protección de una red de cable monopolar
simétrica difiera considerablemente de la de una red bipolar con líneas aéreas. En el primer caso, la protección de la
red de HVdc puede utilizar disyuntores de HVdc con baja
capacidad de interrupción de la corriente o puede no utilizar
mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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