Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 9

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SE ANIMA A TODOS LOS LECTOres A compartir sus opiniones sobre
temas que afectan a la profesión de
ingeniería eléctrica y electrónica. Envíe sus cartas a Michael Henderson,
editor en jefe, mih.psat@gmail.com.
Las cartas pueden editarse para la
publicación.

La historia de la
energía polifásica
Fue un gran placer leer el artículo de Joseph J. Cunningham, "89 Liberty Street:
The Birthplace of Commercial Polyphase Power" [1] (89 Liberty Street: el lugar
de nacimiento de la energía polifásica
comercial). Proporcionó una descripción fascinante del sitio de actividad de
Nikola Tesla en 1887, en la ciudad de
Nueva York, donde el destacado pionero
perfeccionó su primer motor de inducción práctico y sistemas de CA con más
de una única fase.
El autor claramente rinde homenaje a las soluciones polifásicas de Tesla
para motores y generadores bifásicos,
los cuales fueron presentados en 1888
(véase los gráficos 3-5 en "Leyendas
de los gráficos") y también expresa
la visión de Tesla de un concepto para
un sistema trifásico (gráfico 6 en "Leyendas de los gráficos"). En la leyenda
de este gráfico, Cunningham afirma:
"Este concepto de tres fases fue un
precursor de la tendencia futura y del
eventual dominio de los sistemas trifásicos." Esto trae a colación imporIdentificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2019.2896688
Fecha de publicación: 17 de abril de 2019

mayo/junio 2019

gráfico 1. El generador síncrono
trifásico construido por Haselwander,
1887 [5]. (Foto cortesía de Deutsches
Museum, Múnich).

tantes contribuciones de otros pioneros del momento, como se discute en
mi artículo "Historia" sobre la energía
trifásica precursora, publicado en la
edición de septiembre de 2007 de esta
revista [5].
El ingeniero alemán Friedrich August Haselwander ya había construido
el primer generador síncrono trifásico

(gráfico 1) en 1887. Poco después, en
1888, Haselwander estableció una marca distintiva para los sistemas de transmisión de energía trifásicos. Incluia un
generador síncrono, un motor síncrono,
transformadores elevadores y reductores y los cables interconectados de
transmisión (gráfico 2). La transmisión
de energía fue lograda con solamente
tres cables, mientras que Tesla supuso
que serían necesarios seis cables.
Poco después, el 13 de abril de
1891, se brindó una visión retrospectiva sobre este tema en una reunión de
la Sociedad Eléctrica Alemana. Uno
de los oradores, el destacado Wilhelm
Lahmeyer, concluyó que "el crédito de
la invención de un sistema de transmisión a larga distancia solo podría ser
dado a dos personas: Tesla y Haselwander. ... La importancia práctica del
sistema de Haselwander en contraste
con el de Tesla es, en resumen, que el
anterior logra el mismo resultado con
tres cables en comparación con los seis

gráfico 2. El sistema de transmisión trifásico según Haselwander, 1888, con el
generador, el transformador elevador, la línea de transmisión, el transformador
reductor y el motor de impulsión (de una solicitud de patente) [5].
ieee power & energy magazine

9



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
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