Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 98

Por Dragan Jovcic, Guangfu Tang y Hui Pang

Adopción de
disyuntores para
redes de CC de
alta tensión

D

Identificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2019.2897408
Fecha de publicación: 17 de abril de 2019

98

ieee power & energy magazine

DESDE FINALES DEL SIGLO XIX, LOS SISTEMAS DE TRANSMIsión de energía de CA han sido ampliamente utilizados para interconectar múltiples centrales productoras de energía con centros de carga. Las
redes de transmisión de CA malladas con alta redundancia y flexibilidad
en el funcionamiento hoy funcionan en todo el mundo. Estos complejos
sistemas de CA han demostrado ser confiables para brindar altos niveles
de potencia de manera segura, mientras que también admiten múltiples
niveles de tensión para reducir pérdidas.
Dos componentes clave esenciales para los sistemas de transmisión,
además de las líneas en sí mismas, son los disyuntores (CB, por sus siglas
en inglés) y los transformadores. Dichas unidades para la transmisión en
CA son relativamente simples, confiables y eficientes. Los CB permiten
a los operadores abrir un circuito (línea) bajo corrientes de carga y de
falla, lo cual es esencial para el mantenimiento regular, la expansión del
sistema y la integridad física de los grandes sistemas de transmisión. Los
transformadores permiten cambiar los niveles de tensión, lo cual es necesario para mantener sistemas seguros y confiables, pero también para
reducir las pérdidas con la transmisión a larga distancia.
Sin embargo, la transmisión de CA tiene muchas deficiencias, las cuales han sido debatidas públicamente desde la Guerra de las Corrientes
entre Tesla y Westinghouse (quienes favorecían a la CA) y Edison (quien
favorecía a la CC). Con la transmisión de CA, se producen transferencias
de corriente reactiva, las cuales aumentan las pérdidas y causan dificultades en el funcionamiento. Adicionalmente, para la transmisión por cables
submarinos a distancias de más de 100 km, los problemas de energía

1540-7977/19©2019IEEE

mayo/junio 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - 2
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2019 - Cover4
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