IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 114

comenzó a producirlos en masa. 1979
fue también el año de la segunda crisis
energética internacional.
Un " no " público a la
energía nuclear
Si bien la caída del Muro de Berlín
marcó el esperanzador final oficial de
la división Este-Oeste, los temores de
la realidad cada vez más aceptada del
cambio climático se quedaron. Los desastres
ambientales aparecieron repetidamente
en los titulares y los científicos
hablaron de degradación ambiental
y extinciones masivas. En 1987, la
Comisión Mundial para el Medio Ambiente
y el Desarrollo publicó el Informe
Brundtland.
En Dinamarca, la economía sufrió
tras la crisis energética internacional.
La conciencia ambiental creció y los
sentimientos antinucleares fueron predominantes
entre el público. Ambientalistas
y organizaciones no gubernamentales,
investigadores y expertos en
energía, investigadores y comunidades
locales buscaron alternativas. De manera
ascendente, las energías renovables,
por ejemplo, la eólica y la solar,
recibieron un amplio apoyo como recursos
energéticos " verdes " ,
sostenibles
y disponibles a nivel local. Estas
energías renovables también fueron celebradas
como alternativas a la energía
nuclear. Basándose en la rica historia
danesa de las cooperativas en varios
sectores de la sociedad, los grupos de
iniciativa local organizados como cooperativas
de parques eólicos ya habían
invertido y financiado conjuntamente
pequeños parques o turbinas eólicas.
A medida que las turbinas eólicas crecieron
en tamaño y capacidad de producción,
este movimiento cooperativo
de parques eólicos daneses se extendió
rápidamente por todo el país.
Durante la década de 1980, los inpresentaron
vestigadores
numerosos
escenarios
para el futuro de la red eléctrica
danesa. Uno de esos escenarios
imaginó un sistema eléctrico basado
en potencia eólica recolectada localmente
e hidropotencia noruega. Otro
sugirió que 240,000 turbinas eólicas,
ubicadas a lo largo de la costa danesa,
podrían suministrar más de la mitad de
la electricidad consumida en el país. En
1985, el gobierno danés finalmente (y
de manera concluyente) votó " no " a la
potencia nuclear en el futuro sistema
energético danés. En 1986, un desastre
nuclear devastó Chernobyl en la Unión
Soviética.
De manera descendente, la I+D de
figura 5. La turbina eólica Gedser: 200 kW, 38 m/s, área de captura del viento
de 450 m2, diámetro de 24 m. (Fuente: Museo Danés de Ciencia y Tecnología;
usado con permiso).
114
ieee power & energy magazine
las tecnologías de energía renovable
fue apoyada por el Estado danés: el gobierno
participó en programas de I+D
de potencia eólica, subsidió la recolección
de energías renovables e instruyó
a las empresas eléctricas para que desarrollaran
e instalaran 100 MW de potencia
eólica para el año 1990. En 1987,
cerca de Vordingborg en Dinamarca,
el parque eólico más grande de Europa
en ese momento fue conectado a la red
(cinco turbinas de 750 kW cada una).
Las tecnologías para la generación de
mayo/junio 2021

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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